Tuda, A., Kark, S., Newton, A. (2020). Polycentricity and adaptive governance of transboundary marine socialecological systems. Ocean and Coastal Management, 105412, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105412

Tuda, A., Kark, S., Newton, A. 

Transboundary marine socio-ecological systems (SESs) are complex and dynamic systems. Enhancing the sustainability of such systems requires adaptive governance supported by polycentric structures. However, adaptive governance of marine SESs across national boundaries can be challenging, as significant differences in institutional arrangements for resource management and adaptive governance capabilities may exist. The limitations of various institutional arrangements and the challenges of adaptive governance across borders are still poorly understood. We offer a comparative study of two marine co-management systems, in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania, which are bound by different legislative environments to elucidate how institutions might limit or enable adaptive governance at the local and transboundary scale. The legislative environment is characterized based on a review of the literature. The structural properties of the co-management systems are examined for evidence of polycentricity using social network analysis. Across the different co-management contexts, we discover similar and distinct institutional opportunities and challenges for adaptive governance. Both co-management regimes foster the participation of diverse actors and multiple interactions. However, both show strong sectoral tendencies and high centrality of government, which can hinder adaptive governance. There are more autonomous decision units in Tanzania's co-management network, hence a more robust social context for polycentricism compared to Kenya. A shift towards enhanced polycentricity to foster adaptive governance of the Kenya-Tanzania transboundary marine SES will require policy frameworks that enhance cross-sectoral integration and create opportunities for multi-stakeholder bridging.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105412

Islam, N., Garcia da Fonseca, T., Vilke, J., Gonçalves, J. M., Pedro, P., Keiter, S., Cunha, S. C., Fernandes, J. O., Bebianno, M. J.. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) adsorbed to polyethylene microplastics: accumulation and ecotoxicological effect

Islam, N., Garcia da Fonseca, T., Vilke, J., Gonçalves, J. M., Pedro, P., Keiter, S., Cunha, S. C., Fernandes, J. O., Bebianno, M. J.

Microplastics are widespread in the marine environment, whereby the uptake of these tiny particles by organisms, can cause adverse biological responses. Plastic debris also act as a vector of many contaminants, herein depending on type, size, shape and chemical properties, possibly intensifying their effects on marine organisms. This study aimed to assess the accumulation and potential toxicity of different sizes of microplastics with and without adsorbed perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in the clam Scrobicularia plana. Clams were exposed to low-density polyethylene microplastics (1 mg L−1) of two different sizes (4–6 and 20–25 μm) virgin and contaminated with PFOS (55.7 ± 5.3 and 46.1 ± 2.9 μg g−1 respectively) over 14 days. Microplastic ingestion, PFOS accumulation and filtration rate were determined along with a multi biomarker approach to assess the biological effects of microplastics ingestion. Biomarkers include oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidases), biotransformation enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases activity), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity), oxidative damage and apoptosis. Microplastics ingestion and PFOS accumulation was microplastic size dependent but not PFOS dependent and filtration rate was reduced at the end of the exposure. Reactive oxygen species in gills and digestive gland were generated as a result of exposure to both types of microplastics, confirming the disturbance of the antioxidant system. Larger virgin microparticles lead to stronger impacts, when compared to smaller ones which was also supported by the Integrated Biomarker Responses index calculated for both tissues. An anti-apoptotic response was detected in digestive glands under exposure to any of the MPs treatments.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105249

Torregroza Espinosa, A.C., Restrepo, J.C., Escobar, J.H., Pierini, J., Newton, A. (2020b). Spatial and temporal variability of temperature, salinity and chlorophyll-a in the Magdalena River mouth, Caribbean Sea. Journal of South American Earth Sciences,

Torregroza Espinosa, A.C., Restrepo, J.C., Escobar, J.H., Pierini, J., Newton, A.

Variations in the physico-chemical characteristics of estuaries, such as surface water salinity and temperature, lead to the establishment of gradients that are closely related with the distribution of nutrients and suspended sediment. This affects light penetration, which in turn influences Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and primary productivity. We used MODIS imagery to identify spatio-temporal patterns of sea surface salinity, temperature, and Chl-a concentrations from 2003 to 2017, to explore relationships between these variables and oceanographic factors, such as streamflows, winds and currents in the mouth of Colombia's Magdalena River, which discharges to the Caribbean Sea. Sea surface salinity (SSS) in the study zone varied in time and space from estuarine to marine. Mean SSS was 10.8 ± 3.4 at Bocas de Ceniza, and 28.4 ± 0.4 in the Caribbean Sea, with the horizontal salinity gradient providing evidence for the existence of a salinity plume. Mean monthly sea surface temperatures (SST) averaged across all years were 27.6 ± 1.5 °C at Bocas de Ceniza, and 27.6 ± 1.3 °C in the Caribbean Sea. A significant, increasing trend in temperature was observed throughout the years of the study period. Average Chl-a values were 3.3 ± 1.4 mg m−3 at Bocas de Ceniza, and 1.5 ± 1.2 mg m−3 in the Caribbean Sea and the calculated average Trophic State Index (TSI) for Bocas de Ceniza indicated that the estuary trophic state varied between oligo-mesotrophic (30 < TSI≤40) and mesotrophic (40 < TSI≤50). The highest concentrations of Chl-a were found in intermediate salinities in the estuarine zone. Outside the saline plume, there is a considerable decrease in Chl-a concentrations (<0.5 mg m−3). Winds played the most important role in influencing spatio-temporal distribution of chemical and physical variables in the study zone. Our results emphasize the importance of physical processes on biological dynamics in the Magdalena River mouth.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2020.102978

Costas, S., Bon de Sousa, L., Kombiadou, K., Ferreira, Ó., Plomaritis, T.A. (2020). Exploring foredune growth capacity in a coarse sandy beach. Geomorphology, 371, 107435, DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2020.107435

Costas, S., Bon de Sousa, L., Kombiadou, K., Ferreira, Ó., Plomaritis, T.A.

Dunes are key elements of coastal landscapes in almost every latitude. They host high levels of biodiversity and provide important benefits to society; e.g. protection against floods and erosion, or recreation. Coastal dune growth is constrained by intrinsic factors, which are critical when managing dune systems or choosing coastal dune restoration as an alternative green solution for coastal protection. Here, the evolution of a beach-dune system, characterized by a reflective coarse sandy beach and low dunes, is explored to identify the favourable and optimal conditions for dune growth in these settings. Dune growth capacity is evaluated by analysing the topographical changes observed along a coastal dune over two different temporal scales (interannual and event scale) and comparing the observations with theoretical approximations of sediment transport potentials. Observations and predictions over interannual scale document that (1) temporal variability in external conditions (wind regime) and spatial variability of estimated wind fetch length, alone, fail to explain alongshore dune growth patterns and (2) optimal conditions for dune growth occur when storms (strong winds) impact the study area, jointly with low runup levels, at zones of shoreline progradation and absence of direct human influence. Conversely, lowest values of dune accumulation are associated with areas where shoreline retreat was documented. Observations from event timescales suggest that sediment transport potential can be reached over zones with no significant signs of beach erosion, if runup levels remain low and the event duration is shorter than the time scale of sand surface depletion within the upper beach.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2020.107435

Fernandes, E., Fonseca, T.G., Carriço, T., Mestre, N.C., Tavares, A., Bebianno, M. (2020). Cytotoxic responses of the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and comparative sensitivity with human cells lines. Chemospher

Fernandes, E., Fonseca, T.G., Carriço, T., Mestre, N.C., Tavares, A., Bebianno, M

The rise of cancer cases worldwide led to an increase in production and consumption of anticancer drugs, that ultimately end up in the marine environment and are accumulated in aquatic organisms. Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a cytotoxic alkylating agent frequently prescribed in cancer treatments. This study assess ecotoxicological effects of CP on mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, through in vivo and ex vivo approaches and compares the sensitivity of mussel haemocytes with well-established human cell lines (RPE and HeLa). Mussels were exposed in vivo to CP (1000 ng L−1) and several biomarkers analysed in gills and digestive glands namely neurotoxicity (AChE activity), oxidative stress (GPx activity), biotransformation (GST activity), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and apoptosis (caspase activity), whereas genotoxicity was determined in mussels’ haemocytes. Cytotoxicity was also assessed in haemocytes (in vivo and ex vivo) and human cell lines (in vitro) exposed to a range of CP concentrations (50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 ng L−1) over 24 h, via neutral red assay.

In in vivo exposure, detoxification of CP did not efficiently occur in the gills while in digestive glands GPx and GST activities were induced, jointly with a decrease in lipid peroxidation, indicating a potential outcome of the protective antioxidant mechanisms, whereas no apoptosis was noted. Moreover, cytotoxicity and DNA damage were detected in haemocytes. The ex vivo exposure haemocytes to CP caused cytotoxicity (from 100 ng L−1), whereas no effects occurred in human cell lines. This suggests that, at relevant environmental concentrations, CP cause subtle and irreversible impacts on M. galloprovincialis.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127678

 

Martinez, G., Costas, S., Ferreira, Ó. (2020). The role of culture and informal aspects for coastal disaster risk reduction measures: Empirical evidence from northern and southern Europe, Advances in Climate Change Research, 11, 4, 297-309. https://doi.

Martinez, G., Costas, S., Ferreira, Ó.

Recent and historic high-impact events have demonstrated significant flood risks to many coastal areas in Europe and across the globe. Understanding the behavior of humans in relation to risk management poses grand challenges for both natural and social sciences and humanities. The study analyzes the cultural aspects of coastal risk management and illustrates path-dependencies of concrete disaster risk reduction measures in relation to local contexts in European coastal regions in Northern and South Western Europe. It adopts a comparative approach by targeting risk perception and risk management related to coastal floods and erosion, induced by storms and sea level rise, in two contrasting coastal areas: German coastal state Schleswig–Holstein at the Baltic Sea (especially the communities Eckernförde and Timmendorfer Strand) and the Portuguese barrier island system of Ria Formosa (especially the community of Faro Beach). Both regions are very low lying with only a few meters above sea level and exposed to similar hazards such as erosion and floods induced by coastal storms, and while they are both attractive touristic destinations, they are culturally, socio-economically and politically very different. The geographical and the socio-cultural contexts of the case study regions are assessed first using an explorative approach, followed by an analysis of the relevance of cultural aspects for the implementation of disaster risk reduction measures. The study addresses both first responders (city authorities, citizens) and scholars. It is found that the choice of risk reduction measures hinges on the values underlying people's perspectives about the desired outcomes of specific measures and that the role of identity and meaning making are still undervalued in decision making processes. It concludes that subjective capacities formed by cultural identities, knowledge, trust coupled with a variety of factors of socio-economic and political texture are important to understand local decision making processes. The authors found that lively ‘culture of risk memory’, ‘trust in scientific information and community’ as well as decision making of coastal authorities coupled with inclusiveness and participation of communities in formulating and implementing disaster risk reduction measures are prerequisites for successful collaboration and in turn execution of disaster risk reduction measures.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accre.2020.11.001

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E., Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde, K., Hi

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E.,
Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde,
K., Higgs, N.D., Levin, L.A., Manea, E., McClain, C., Menot, L., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Milligan, R., Muthumbi, A.W.N,
Narayanaswamy, B., Ramalho, S.P., Ramirez-Llodra, E., Robson, L., Rogers, A.D., Sellanes, J., Sigwart, J., Sink, K., Snelgrove,
P.V.R., Stefanoudis, P., Sumida, P.Y., Taylor, M., Thurber, A.R., Vieira, R., Watanabe, H.K., Woodall, L., Xavier, J.R.

The ocean plays a crucial role in the functioning of the Earth System and in the provision of vital goods and services. The United Nations (UN) declared 2021–2030 as the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. The Roadmap for the Ocean Decade aims to achieve six critical societal outcomes (SOs) by 2030, through the pursuit of four objectives (Os). It specifically recognizes the scarcity of biological data for deep-sea biomes, and challenges the global scientific community to conduct research to advance understanding of deep-sea ecosystems to inform sustainable management. In this paper, we map four key scientific questions identified by the academic community to the Ocean Decade SOs: (i) What is the diversity of life in the deep ocean? (ii) How are populations and habitats connected? (iii) What is the role of living organisms in ecosystem function and service provision? and (iv) How do species, communities, and ecosystems respond to disturbance? We then consider the design of a global-scale program to address these questions by reviewing key drivers of ecological pattern and process. We recommend using the following criteria to stratify a global survey design: biogeographic region, depth, horizontal distance, substrate type, high and low climate hazard, fished/unfished, near/far from sources of pollution, licensed/protected from industry activities. We consider both spatial and temporal surveys, and emphasize new biological data collection that prioritizes southern and polar latitudes, deeper (> 2000 m) depths, and midwater environments. We provide guidance on observational, experimental, and monitoring needs for different benthic and pelagic ecosystems. We then review recent efforts to standardize biological data and specimen collection and archiving, making “sampling design to knowledge application” recommendations in the context of a new global program. We also review and comment on needs, and recommend actions, to develop capacity in deep-sea research; and the role of inclusivity - from accessing indigenous and local knowledge to the sharing of technologies - as part of such a global program. We discuss the concept of a new global deep-sea biological research program ‘Challenger 150,’ highlighting what it could deliver for the Ocean Decade and UN Sustainable Development Goal 14.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.584861

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E., Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde, K., Hi

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E.,
Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde,
K., Higgs, N.D., Levin, L.A., Manea, E., McClain, C., Menot, L., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Milligan, R., Muthumbi, A.W.N,
Narayanaswamy, B., Ramalho, S.P., Ramirez-Llodra, E., Robson, L., Rogers, A.D., Sellanes, J., Sigwart, J., Sink, K., Snelgrove,
P.V.R., Stefanoudis, P., Sumida, P.Y., Taylor, M., Thurber, A.R., Vieira, R., Watanabe, H.K., Woodall, L., Xavier, J.R.

The United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development presents an exceptional opportunity to effect positive change in ocean use. We outline what is required of the deep-sea research community to achieve these ambitious objectives.

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-01352-5

Smith, C.R., Tunnicliffe, V., Colaço, A. Drazen, J.C. Gollner, S., Levin, L.A., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Molodtsova, T., Morato, T. Sweetman, A.K., Washburn, T. Amon, D.J. (2020b). Environmental protection requires accurate application of scientific

Smith, C.R., Tunnicliffe, V., Colaço, A. Drazen, J.C. Gollner, S., Levin, L.A., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Molodtsova, T., Morato, T. Sweetman, A.K., Washburn, T. Amon, D.J.

We thank Dr Verlaan [ 1. ] for offering a legal opinion on the United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and its protections for the marine environment, inspired by reading our paper [ 2. ]. We agree that scientists and lawyers should work together to formulate deep-sea mining regulations; to this end, we have jointly authored 19 publications with lawyers on topics related to human impacts in the deep sea. We also agree that regulatory decisions concerning seabed mining must be informed both by accurate interpretations of the law and by accurate application of the best available scientific evidence.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2020.10.021

Van Dover, C., Colaco, A., Collins, P. Croot, P., Metaxas, A., Murton, B., Swaddling, A., Boschen-Rose, R., Carlsson, J., Cuyvers, L., Fukushima, T., Gartman, A., Kennedy, R. Kriete, C., Mestre, N.C., Molodtsova, T., Myhrvold, A., Pelleter, E., Popoola,

Van Dover, C., Colaco, A., Collins, P. Croot, P., Metaxas, A., Murton, B., Swaddling, A., Boschen-Rose, R., Carlsson, J., Cuyvers, L., Fukushima, T., Gartman, A., Kennedy, R. Kriete, C., Mestre, N.C., Molodtsova, T., Myhrvold, A., Pelleter, E., Popoola, S., Qian, P.-Y., Sarrazin, J., Sharma, R., Suh, Y.J., Sylvan, J., Tao, C., Tomczak, M., Vermilye, J.

Polymetallic sulfide (PMS) deposits produced at hydrothermal vents in the deep sea are of potential interest to miners. Hydrothermally active sulfide ecosystems are valued for the extraordinary chemosynthetic communities that they support. Many countries, including Canada, Portugal, and the United States, protect vent ecosystems in their Exclusive Economic Zones. When hydrothermal activity ceases temporarily (dormancy) or permanently (extinction), the habitat and associated ecosystem change dramatically. Until recently, so-called “inactive sulfide” habitats, either dormant or extinct, received little attention from biologists. However, the need for environmental management of deep-sea mining places new imperatives for building scientific understanding of the structure and function of inactive PMS deposits. This paper calls for actions of the scientific community and the emergent seabed mining industry to i) undertake fundamental ecological descriptions and study of ecosystem functions and services associated with hydrothermally inactive PMS deposits, ii) evaluate potential environmental risks to ecosystems of inactive PMS deposits through research, and iii) identify environmental management needs that may enable mining of inactive PMS deposits. Mining of some extinct PMS deposits may have reduced environmental risk compared to other seabed mining activities, but this must be validated through scientific research on a case-by-case basis.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104183

Kombiadou, K., Matias, A., Costas, S., Rita Carrasco, A., Plomaritis, T. A., Ferreira, Ó. (2020b). Barrier island resilience assessment: Applying the ecological principles to geomorphological data. CATENA, 194, 104755, https://doi. org/10.1016/j.catena.2

Kombiadou, K., Matias, A., Costas, S., Rita Carrasco, A., Plomaritis, T. A., Ferreira, Ó.

Applying the ecological resilience principles to barrier island geomorphological evolution requires approaches that perceive and interpret resilience far from predefined barrier characteristics and static views. Accepting that barrier islands, like all natural systems, are dynamic and adaptively changing in response to external disturbances is fundamental to the formulated approach. To this aim, geomorphological units and dimensions were used to describe barrier island stability landscape as an actively shifting ‘topography’, reshaping in response to exogenous events and in relation to intrinsic properties. The structure of the subaerial barrier was characterised using the environmental units of Beach, Dune and Marsh (or BDM), where different combinations of BDM structure define distinct barrier stable states, under a simplified framework that is applicable over a wide range of barrier structures. The methodology is based on reconstructing resilience trajectories of barrier islands through identifying the distinct BDM states and related shifts (thresholds crossed) and assessing resilience dimensions (latitude, resistance and precariousness defined as barrier width and height and proximity to mainland, respectively) that, jointly, define the shape of the stability domain. The approach was applied to the Ria Formosa barrier island system (S. Portugal), using multi-decadal geomorphological data and gradually decreasing spatial discretisation, passing from individual barrier transects to sectors and to entire barriers. The joint evolution of two inland-migrating barriers (Cabanas Island and Cacela Peninsula) was used as an exemplar of adaptive capacity in barrier geomorphic change and, therefore, of resilient response to external pressures. Resilience pathways showed that the Ria Formosa barriers have been resilient over the studied timeframe, with a tendency for maintaining or increasing BDM structural complexity. In general, the stability domain tends to shift from low latitude and high resistance forms (narrow-deep basins of attraction) in the west part of the barrier chain, to higher latitudes and lower resistance ones (wide-shallow basins) towards the east. Precariousness peaks near the edges of the system (low lagoon width) and minimises towards the central part (most detached barriers). Scaling issues regarding smoothing of longshore variability and potential consequences on masking thresholds and critical dimensions are highlighted and discussed, along with the key role of the meaning of specified resilience (of what?) in the assessment. The methodology is a novel approach, easily transferable to different systems and spatiotemporal scales of analysis, representing a step forward in interpreting and assessing barrier island resilience.

https://doi. org/10.1016/j.catena.2020.104755

Guerra, L., Veiga-Pires, C., González-Regalado, M. L., Abad, M., Toscano, A., Muñoz, J. M., Ruiz, F., Rodríguez Vidal, J., Cáceres, L. M., Izquierdo, T., Carretero, M. I., Pozo, M., Monge, G., Tosquella, J., Prudencio, M. I., Dias, M. I., Marques, R., G

Guerra, L., Veiga-Pires, C., González-Regalado, M. L., Abad, M., Toscano, A., Muñoz, J. M., Ruiz, F., Rodríguez Vidal,
J., Cáceres, L. M., Izquierdo, T., Carretero, M. I., Pozo, M., Monge, G., Tosquella, J., Prudencio, M. I., Dias, M. I., Marques,
R., Gómez, P., Romero, V.

This paper studies the Late Holocene benthic foraminifera from a continuous core extracted in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain). In this core, the foraminiferal assemblages confirm the Late Holocene lagoon (historically so-called Lacus Ligustinus) during the Roman period, about 2000 years ago. The more open, deepest areas of this lagoon were dominated by Ammonia tepida and Elphidium spp., while Haynesina germanica was the most representative species of the shallow, more restricted zones. The vertical variations of these assemblages, together with associated sedimentological and macrofaunal changes, allow recognizing three high-energy events (HEE) between 500 BCE and 500 CE, which also left an extensive sedimentary record in nearby coastal areas: two tsunamis (HEE-1 and HEE-3) and a storminess period (HEE-2).

https://doi.org/10.5710/AMGH.08.05.2020.3336

Vousdoukas, M. I., Ranasinghe, R., Mentaschi, L., Plomaritis, T. A., Athanasiou, P., Luijendijk, A., Feyen, L. (2020). Sandy coastlines under threat of erosion. Nature Climate Change. Nature Research, 10, pp. 260–263. https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41558-020-

Vousdoukas, M. I., Ranasinghe, R., Mentaschi, L., Plomaritis, T. A., Athanasiou, P., Luijendijk, A., Feyen, L.

Sandy beaches occupy more than one-third of the global coastline1 and have high socioeconomic value related to recreation, tourism and ecosystem services2. Beaches are the interface between land and ocean, providing coastal protection from marine storms and cyclones3. However the presence of sandy beaches cannot be taken for granted, as they are under constant change, driven by meteorological4,5, geological6 and anthropogenic factors1,7. A substantial proportion of the world’s sandy coastline is already eroding1,7, a situation that could be exacerbated by climate change8,9. Here, we show that ambient trends in shoreline dynamics, combined with coastal recession driven by sea level rise, could result in the near extinction of almost half of the world’s sandy beaches by the end of the century. Moderate GHG emission mitigation could prevent 40% of shoreline retreat. Projected shoreline dynamics are dominated by sea level rise for the majority of sandy beaches, but in certain regions the erosive trend is counteracted by accretive ambient shoreline changes; for example, in the Amazon, East and Southeast Asia and the north tropical Pacific. A substantial proportion of the threatened sandy shorelines are in densely populated areas, underlining the need for the design and implementation of effective adaptive measures.

https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41558-020-0697-0

Abalansa, S., El Mahrad, B., Vondolia, G.K., Icely, J.D., Newton, A. (2020). The marine litter issue: a social-economic analysis. Sustainability, 12(20), 8677. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208677

Abalansa, S., El Mahrad, B., Vondolia, G.K., Icely, J.D., Newton, A

The issue of marine plastic litter pollution is multifaceted, cross-sectoral, and ongoing in the absence of appropriate management measures. This study analysed the issue of marine plastic litter pollution in the context of the Descriptor 10 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and Good Environmental Status of the oceans and seas. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was used to assess the causes, effects, and management measures to changes in the marine environment resulting from marine plastics pollution. We noted that less than 10 peer-reviewed publications have applied the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model to the issue of marine plastics pollution. Some basic needs such as food security, movement of goods and services, and shelter are also some of the major drivers of marine plastic pollution. The use of plastics is linked to multiple economic sectors (fisheries, agriculture, transport, packaging, construction) and other human activities. A significant amount of the resulting pressures came from the economic sectors for packaging and construction. State changes occurred at the environmental (contamination and bioaccumulation), ecosystem (ingestion of plastics, ghost fishing) and ecosystem service levels (supply of sea food, salt and cultural benefits), with possible loss of jobs and income being some of the observed impacts on human welfare. Responses as management measures, which are tailored to meet each component of the DPSIR framework, were identified. These included policies, regulations, technological advancement and behavioural change. The research acknowledges the issue of marine plastics pollution as a global environmental problem and recommends a trans-disciplinary approach, involving all types of stakeholders. Future research and analysis applying the DPSIR framework will be useful to provide the information necessary for the effective, adaptive management of litter pollution by marine plastics.

https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208677

Mendes, I., Lobo, F.J., Hanebuth, T.J.J., López-Quirós, Á., Schönfeld, J., Lebreiro, S., Reguera, M.I., Antón, L., Ferreira, Ó. (2020). Temporal variability of flooding events of Guadiana River (Iberian Peninsula) during the middle to late Holocene: Imp

Mendes, I., Lobo, F.J., Hanebuth, T.J.J., López-Quirós, Á., Schönfeld, J., Lebreiro, S., Reguera, M.I., Antón, L., Ferreira, Ó

Sedimentological, geochemical and benthic foraminiferal proxies were used to interpret changes of depositional environments in a mud entrapment inside the Guadiana River paleo-valley, northern Gulf of Cadiz, to understand the temporal variability of fluvial flooding events and to detect patterns of latitudinal climatic variability in western Iberia.

The period between ca. 5800 and ca. 1250 cal yr BP was characterized by slowly accumulating coarse-grained sediments, high content of biogenic sand components, and high abundances of shallow-water benthic foraminiferal species. After ca. 1250 cal yr BP, the sedimentary environment was dominated by fine-grained sediments, with high abundances of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal species and successful colonizers, and high values of geochemical ratios indicative of enhanced terrigenous supply. Sedimentation rates increased drastically over the last ca. 500 years.

The genesis of these environments was mainly driven by the variable frequency of fluvial flooding events driven by the regional climate variability. Low terrigenous sediment input under dry conditions prevailed in the older sedimentary unit. Flood frequency and terrigenous sediment supply increased during the younger unit. The variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation at centennial scales highly influenced the sediment supply during the last ca. 500 years, with high terrigenous supply during negative NAO conditions. Our results corroborate an N-S gradient along the Atlantic Iberia during middle and late Holocene, with more humid conditions in the northwestern and drier conditions towards the southeast. The gradient weakened over the past ca. 500 years, with increased rainfalls and flood events during the Little Ice Age.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2020.109900

Silva, S., Cravo, A., Ferreira, C., Correia, C., Almeida, C. M. M. (2020). Biomarker Responses of the clams Ruditapes decussatus Exposed to a Complex Mixture of Environmental Stressors Under the Influence of an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant. Environm

Silva, S., Cravo, A., Ferreira, C., Correia, C., Almeida, C. M. M.

To evaluate the potential impact of an urban wastewater‐treatment plant on Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, a sentinel species, the clam Ruditapes decussatus, was exposed along a gradient of the effluent's dispersal for 1 mo. Three exposure sites were selected to study the responses of 3 biomarkers: electron transport system, acetylcholinesterase, and lipid peroxidation. As complementary data, morphometric measurements, condition index, and lipid and protein content were considered together with in situ physicochemical characterization of the sites (temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen). Electron transport system activity levels were between 35.7 and 50.5 nmol O2/min g protein, acetylcholinesterase activity levels ranged from 2.6 to 3.8 nmol/min g protein, and lipid peroxidation ranged from 174.7 to 246.4 nmol malondialdehyde/g protein. The exposure sites shaped the response not only of biomarkers but also of “health” parameters (protein, lipids, and condition index). Lipid peroxidation was the most responsive biomarker also associated with electron transport system, especially at the closest site to the urban wastewater‐treatment plant. Because of the presence of complex mixtures of contaminants in urban effluents, biomarker responses can provide valuable information in environmental assessment. However, it is vital to identify all biological and ecological factors induced by the natural life cycle of clams. Abiotic factors can mask or overlap the response of biomarkers and should be considered in a multibiomarker approach. 

https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.4895

Rocha, H.V., Mendes, M., Pereira, Z., Rodrigues, C., Fernandes, P., Lopes, G., Sant’Anna, L.G., Tassinari, C.C.G., Lemos de Sousa, M. J. (2020). New palynostratigraphic data of the Irati (Assistência Member) and the Corumbataí formations, Paraná Basin

Rocha, H.V., Mendes, M., Pereira, Z., Rodrigues, C., Fernandes, P., Lopes, G., Sant’Anna, L.G., Tassinari, C.C.G., Lemos de Sousa, M. J.

This research presents the palynostratigraphy of organic-rich shales from the Irati and the Corumbataí formations, Paraná Basin (PB), Southeastern Brazil, as part of an unconventional hydrocarbon source rock and CO2 reservoir assessment study. Thirty-four samples from the Corumbataí Formation and the Assistência Member of the Irati Formation were collected in the states of Goiás (northern border of the PB), São Paulo and Paraná (eastern and southern border of the PB, respectively). The acquired data allowed to establish a comprehensive palynostratigraphic study across the basin where a total of 18 pollen genera (34 pollen species), seven spore genera, four microplankton genera (1 species), and Chlorophyceae algae species where identified. The palynostratigraphic analysis also reveals a clear dominance of bisaccate pollen grains such as Corisaccites alutas, Lueckisporites virkkiae, and Weylandites lucifer. The Lueckisporites virkkiae zone was identified in the upper part of the Irati Formation (Assistência Member) and the lowermost part of the Corumbataí Formation, indicating a Kungurian to Roadian age for this part of the succession. Differences in the Guttulapollenites hannonicus and Tornopollenites toreutos biostratigraphic ranges, recovered in the Corumbataí Formation, suggest an earlier development of these species in the Paraná Basin during the middle Permian. Therefore, to evaluate the differences in the first occurrences of key species within the Paraná Basin, a close palynostratigraphic correlation between the main Guadalupian-Lopingian South American Gondwana basins is tentatively established.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2020.102631

Mello, L. C., Fonseca, T. G., Abessa, D. (2020). Ecotoxicological assessment of chemotherapeutic agents using toxicity tests with embryos of Mellita quinquiesperforata. Marine Pollution Bulletin 159: 111493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. marpolbul.2020.1114

Mello, L. C., Fonseca, T. G., Abessa, D. 

The consumption of anticancer agents has increased in the recent decades, and these substances may be present in sewage. Consequently, they may reach the environment when sanitation infrastructure is ineffective. This study evaluated the toxicity of three anticancer agents—Tamoxifen (TAM), Cisplatin (CisPt), and Cyclophosphamide (CP)—on the development of embryos of the sand-dollar Mellita quinquiesperforata. Adult individuals were collected in sandy beaches, and gametes were obtained. Freshly-fertilized eggs were exposed to increasing sets of concentrations of each compound, and the effective concentrations needed to cause a 50% effect in the organisms (EC50) were calculated. The three compounds were toxic, and their EC50 values were 16.78 ± 2.42 ng·L−1 (TAM), 27.20 ± 38.26 ng·L−1 (CisPt), and 101.82 ± 70.96 ng·L−1 (CP). There is no information on the environmental levels of these compounds in Brazil, but as they were already detected in ng·L−1 levels worldwide, it can be expected that these substances pose environmental risks to the marine biota.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j. marpolbul.2020.111493

Torregroza Espinosa, A.C., Restrepo, J.C., Escobar, J.H., Brenner, M., Newton, A. (2020a). Nutrient Input and Net Ecosystem Productivity in the Mouth of the Magdalena River, Colombia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 243, 106899 https://doi.org/10.

Torregroza Espinosa, A.C., Restrepo, J.C., Escobar, J.H., Brenner, M., Newton, A.

Nutrient inputs and biogeochemical cycles in estuaries are strongly influenced by river discharge and suspended particulate matter (SPM). We evaluated temporal differences in nutrient bioavailability and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and analyzed the effect of SPM on nutrient availability and estuary NEP in the mouth of the Magdalena River, Colombia. In this study, we used the stratified Muddy LOICZ model. Calculated water residence times in the estuary were low (~0.9–2.1 days), as were proportions of dissolved nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) forms (~10–30%) in the total nutrient pool. Dissolved nutrient proportions displayed differences between seasons (transition period [June 2018] and wet [November 2018]), and between the upper and lower, density-stratified water layers. Nutrient adsorption and desorption, associated with SPM in the estuary, determined bioavailable nutrient concentrations. When SPM was incorporated in the Muddy LOICZ model, the output indicated that NEP in the estuary was positive, i.e. gross primary productivity exceeded community respiration (autotrophic), and that there was net retention of nitrogen and phosphorus in the estuary. Primary producers in the autotrophic ecosystem fix sufficient carbon to supply higher trophic levels. Prevalence of fine sediment with high organic matter (OM) content in the Magdalena River, along with turbulence that results in vertical water column mixing, suggest conditions conducive to flocculation. This investigation highlights the importance of the Magdalena River mouth in the transport and processing of sediments and nutrients being discharged to the Caribbean Sea.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2020.106899

Guerra, L., González-Regalado Montero, M. L., Toscano Grande, A., Rodríguez Vidal, J. (2020c). El contraste micropaleontológico de la Historia: el Lacus Ligustinus romano. Estudios Geológicos 76 (2), 131. https://doi.org/10.3989/ egeol.43851.585

Guerra, L., González-Regalado Montero, M. L., Toscano Grande, A., Rodríguez Vidal, J. 

Durante el periodo romano (siglo III a.C.-siglo V d.C.), las zonas próximas a la actual desembocadura del río Guadalquivir estaban ocupadas por una laguna interior con conexión marina, a partir de la interpretación paleoambiental de las asociaciones de foraminíferos bentónicos obtenidos en un sondeo situado en el Parque Nacional de Doñana. Sus zonas internas estaban ocupadas por llanuras mareales arcillosas, que sufrieron los efectos de una tormenta hacia finales del siglo I d.C. La comparación con los ostrácodos del mismo sondeo confirma esta recons­trucción y los datos paleogeográficos aportados por diversos cronistas, si bien estos microcrustáceos detectan de manera más precisa los cambios paleoambientales en estos medios litorales.

https://doi.org/10.3989/ egeol.43851.585

O'Donovan, S., Mestre, N.C., Abel, S., Fonseca, T.G., Carteny, C.C., Willems, T., Prinsen, E., Cormier, B., Keiter, S.H. Bebianno, M.J. (2020). Effects of the UV filter, oxybenzone, adsorbed to microplastics in the clam Scrobicularia plana.Science of Th

O'Donovan, S., Mestre, N.C., Abel, S., Fonseca, T.G., Carteny, C.C., Willems, T., Prinsen, E., Cormier, B., Keiter, S.H. Bebianno, M.J

Microplastics (MPs) lipophilic nature and widespread distribution raises concerns due to their increasing presence in the marine environment and their ability to adsorb organic contaminants, as being potential vehicles for transport and potential source of accumulation of organic contaminants by marine organisms. The organic UV-filter, oxybenzone (BP-3) is a constituent of sunscreens and personal care products, entering the marine environment either by direct contact with swimmers or by wastewater effluents. In this study the ecotoxicological effects of exposure to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) microplastics with and without adsorbed BP-3 were investigated in the peppery furrow shell clam, Scrobicularia plana. LDPE microplastics with a size range of 11–13 μm were previously contaminated with an environmentally relevant concentration of BP-3 (82 ng g−1). S. plana individuals were exposed to a concentration of 1 mg L−1 of microplastics with and without BP-3 adsorbed in a water-sediment exposure system for 14 days. Clams were sampled at the beginning of the experiment and after 3, 7, and 14 days of exposure. Multiple biomarkers were analysed to investigate the effect of exposure in different clam tissues, gills, digestive gland, and haemolymph. Antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases) enzyme activities, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation), genotoxicity (single and double strand DNA breaks), and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity) were assessed along with two biomarker indexes to assess the overall health status. Results indicate that after 7 days of exposure MPs with adsorbed BP-3 induced oxidative stress and damage, when compared to exposure to virgin MPs and control treatments. Neurotoxic effects were also noted in MPs with adsorbed BP-3 after 14 days exposure, while some evidence points to increased genotoxicity with exposure time. Overall results indicate that gills were more affected by exposure to microplastics than digestive gland and that biomarkers alterations are apparently more related to the toxicity of BP-3 adsorbed than virgin MPs alone.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139102

Correia, C., Torres, A. F., Rosa, A., Cravo, A., Jacob, J, Júnior, L., Garel, E. (2020). Export of dissolved and suspended matter from the main estuaries in south Portugal during winter conditions. Marine Chemistry, 224, 1-15, https://doi. org/10.1016/j.

Correia, C., Torres, A. F., Rosa, A., Cravo, A., Jacob, J., Júnior, L., Garel, E. 

Estuaries are essential drivers of primary productivity in coastal waters through the export of dissolved and suspended material. This study aims at quantifying this fertilization process at the two main estuaries in South Portugal, where typical low river discharge conditions occur in winter due to strong flow regulation by upstream dams and seldom-local rain events. Data were collected across the channel of the lower Arade (10/01/2018) and Guadiana (04/02/2019) estuaries during a semi-diurnal tidal cycle with intermediate tidal ranges (1.5 m and 2.2 m, respectively). Current velocity records were completed with hourly water quality measurements (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, chlorophyll a and nutrients) for determination of the along channel fluxes and residual mass transport of dissolved and suspended matter across the channel sections. The results show that the two estuaries were characterized by distinct water circulation patterns and tidal properties (e.g., standing wave at the Arade, mixed wave at the Guadiana). The concentration of dissolved and particulate matter displayed a general similar anti-phase pattern of variations with tidal height at both sites. The corresponding fluxes were generally strongest during the ebb phase. Thus, the residual mass transport was seaward, indicating that both estuaries contribute to fertilize adjacent coastal waters by exporting nutrients (order of kg), chlorophyll a (order of kg) and suspended solids (up to tons). Moreover, transport differences at both estuaries reflect specific discharge flow and environmental conditions as well as contamination sources close to the study areas. In particular, the signatures of a discharge event from a water treatment plant at the Arade and of coastal upwelling at the Guadiana were identified.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103827

Boutoub, O., El-Guendouz, S., Estevinho, L.M., Paula, V., Aazza, S., Ghadraoui, L., Rodrigues, B., Raposo, S., Carlier, J, Costa, M.C., Miguel, M.G. (2020). Antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitory potential of Euphorbia resinifera and E. officinarum

Boutoub, O., El-Guendouz, S., Estevinho, L.M., Paula, V., Aazza, S., Ghadraoui, L., Rodrigues, B., Raposo, S., Carlier,
J, Costa, M.C., Miguel, M.G

Natural products may be applied in a wide range of domains, from agriculture to food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the antioxidant properties and the capacity to inhibit some enzymatic activities of Euphorbia resinifera and Euphorbia officinarum aqueous extracts and honeys were assessed. The physicochemical characteristics were also evaluated. Higher amounts of iron, copper and aluminium were detected in E. officinarum honey, which may indicate environmental pollution around the beehives or inadequate storage of honey samples. This honey sample showed higher amounts of total phenols and better capacity for scavenging superoxide anion free radicals and DPPH free radicals as compared with E. resinifera honey, but poorer capacity for inhibiting lipoxygenase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase. The ratio plant mass:solvent volume (1:100) and extraction time (1 - 2 h) were associated with higher total phenols and better antioxidant activities and lipoxygenase, acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, regardless of the plant species. The aqueous extracts had systematically higher in vitro activities than the respective honey samples.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10489-6

Kümmerer, V., Drago, T., Veiga-Pires, C., Silva, P.F., Magalhães, V., Mena, A., Lopes, A., Rodrigues, A.I., Schmidt, S., Terrinha, P., Baptista, M.A. (2020). Exploring offshore sediment evidence of the 1755 ce tsunami (Faro, portugal): Implications for

Kümmerer, V., Drago, T., Veiga-Pires, C., Silva, P.F., Magalhães, V., Mena, A., Lopes, A., Rodrigues, A.I., Schmidt, S., Terrinha, P., Baptista, M.A.

Outer shelf sedimentary records are promising for determining the recurrence intervals of tsunamis. However, compared to onshore deposits, offshore deposits are more difficult to access, and so far, studies of outer shelf tsunami deposits are scarce. Here, an example of studying these deposits is presented to infer implications for tsunami-related signatures in similar environments and potentially contribute to pre-historic tsunami event detections. A multidisciplinary approach was performed to detect the sedimentary imprints left by the 1755 CE tsunami in two cores, located in the southern Portuguese continental shelf at water depths of 58 and 91 m. Age models based on 14C and 210Pbxs allowed a probable correspondence with the 1755 CE tsunami event. A multi-proxy approach, including sand composition, grain-size, inorganic geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and microtextural features on quartz grain surfaces, yielded evidence for a tsunami depositional signature, although only a subtle terrestrial signal is present. A low contribution of terrestrial material to outer shelf tsunami deposits calls for methodologies that reveal sedimentary structures linked to tsunami event hydrodynamics. Finally, a change in general sedimentation after the tsunami event might have influenced the signature of the 1755 CE tsunami in the outer shelf environment.

https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090731

Malone, T., Newton, A. (2020). The Globalization of Coastal Eutrophication: Causes and Consequences. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, 670, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.00670

 Malone, T., Newton, A. 

Coastal eutrophication caused by anthropogenic nutrient inputs is one of the greatest threats to the health of coastal estuarine and marine ecosystems worldwide. Globally, ∼24% of the anthropogenic N released in coastal watersheds is estimated to reach coastal ecosystems. Seven contrasting coastal ecosystems subject to a range of riverine inputs of freshwater and nutrients are compared to better understand and manage this threat. The following are addressed: (i) impacts of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on ecosystem services; (ii) how ecosystem traits minimize or amplify these impacts; (iii) synergies among pressures (nutrient enrichment, over fishing, coastal development, and climate-driven pressures in particular); and (iv) management of nutrient inputs to coastal ecosystems. This comparative analysis shows that “trophic status,” when defined in terms of the level of primary production, is not useful for relating anthropogenic nutrient loading to impacts. Ranked in terms of the impact of cultural eutrophication, Chesapeake Bay ranks number one followed by the Baltic Sea, Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Gulf of Mexico, Santa Barbara Channel, East China Sea, and the Great Barrier Reef. The impacts of increases in anthropogenic nutrient loading (e.g., development of “dead zones,” loss of biologically engineered habitats, and toxic phytoplankton events) are, and will continue to be, exacerbated by synergies with other pressures, including over fishing, coastal development and climate-driven increases in sea surface temperature, acidification and rainfall. With respect to management, reductions in point source inputs from sewage treatment plants are increasingly successful. However, controlling inputs from diffuse sources remains a challenging problem. The conclusion from this analysis is that the severity of coastal eutrophication will likely continue to increase in the absence of effectively enforced, ecosystem-based management of both point and diffuse sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. This requires sustained, integrated research and monitoring, as well as repeated assessments of nutrient loading and impacts. These must be informed and guided by ongoing collaborations among scientists, politicians, managers and the public.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.00670

Smith, C. R., Tunnicliffe, V., Colaço, A., Drazen, J.C., Gollner, S., Levin, L.A., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Molodtsova, T., Morato, T., Sweetman, A.K., Washburn, T., Amon, D.J. (2020a). Deep-sea misconceptions cause underestimation of seabed-mining i

Smith, C. R., Tunnicliffe, V., Colaço, A., Drazen, J.C., Gollner, S., Levin, L.A., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Molodtsova, T., Morato, T., Sweetman, A.K., Washburn, T., Amon, D.J.

Scientific misconceptions are likely leading to miscalculations of the environmental impacts of deepseabed mining. These result from underestimating mining footprints relative to habitats targeted and
poor understanding of the sensitivity, biodiversity, and dynamics of deep-sea ecosystems. Addressing these misconceptions and knowledge gaps is needed for effective management of deep-seabed mining.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2020.07.002

Newton, A., Icely, J., Cristina, S., Perillo, Gerardo M.E., Turner, R. E., Ashan, D., Cragg, S., Luo, Y., Tu, C., Li, Y., Zhang, H., Ramesh, R., Forbes, D. L., Solidoro, C., Béjaoui, B., Gao, S., Pastres, R., Kelsey, H., Taillie, D., Nhan, N., Brito, A.

Newton, A., Icely, J., Cristina, S., Perillo, Gerardo M.E., Turner, R. E., Ashan, D., Cragg, S., Luo, Y., Tu, C., Li, Y., Zhang, H., Ramesh, R., Forbes, D. L., Solidoro, C., Béjaoui, B., Gao, S., Pastres, R., Kelsey, H., Taillie, D., Nhan, N., Brito, A. C., de Lima, R., Kuenzer, C.

Coastal wetlands, such as saltmarshes and mangroves that fringe transitional waters, deliver important ecosystem services that support human development. Coastal wetlands are complex social-ecological systems that occur at all latitudes, from polar regions to the tropics. This overview covers wetlands in five continents. The wetlands are of varying size, catchment size, human population and stages of economic development. Economic sectors and activities in and around the coastal wetlands and their catchments exert multiple, direct pressures. These pressures affect the state of the wetland environment, ecology and valuable ecosystem services. All the coastal wetlands were found to be affected in some ways, irrespective of the conservation status. The main economic sectors were agriculture, animal rearing including aquaculture, fisheries, tourism, urbanization, shipping, industrial development and mining. Specific human activities include land reclamation, damming, draining and water extraction, construction of ponds for aquaculture and salt extraction, construction of ports and marinas, dredging, discharge of effluents from urban and industrial areas and logging, in the case of mangroves, subsistence hunting and oil and gas extraction. The main pressures were loss of wetland habitat, changes in connectivity affecting hydrology and sedimentology, as well as contamination and pollution. These pressures lead to changes in environmental state, such as erosion, subsidence and hypoxia that threaten the sustainability of the wetlands. There are also changes in the state of the ecology, such as loss of saltmarsh plants and seagrasses, and mangrove trees, in tropical wetlands. Changes in the structure and function of the wetland ecosystems affect ecosystem services that are often underestimated. The loss of ecosystem services impacts human welfare as well as the regulation of climate change by coastal wetlands. These cumulative impacts and multi-stressors are further aggravated by indirect pressures, such as sea-level rise.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2020.00144

Matias, A., Carrasco, A.R., Ramos, A., Borges, R. (2020). Engaging children in geosciences through storytelling and creative dance. Geoscience Communication, 3, 167-177. https://doi.org/10.5194/gc-3-167-2020

Matias, A., Carrasco, A.R., Ramos, A., Borges, R.

Natural sciences have traditionally been disseminated in outreach activities as formal, one-way presentations. Nevertheless, innovative strategies are being increasingly developed using arts, gaming, and sketching, amongst others. This work aimed at testing an alternative and innovative way to engage non-expert audiences in ocean and coastal geology through a combination of scientific concept explanations and creative dancing. An informal education activity focusing on ocean dynamics was designed for 10-year-old students. It combines coastal science concepts (wind, waves, currents, and sand), storytelling techniques (narrative arc), and creative dance techniques (movement, imaginative play, and sensory engagement). A sequence of six exercises was proposed, starting with the generation of offshore ocean waves and ending with sediment transport on the beach during storm/fair-weather conditions. Scientific concepts were then translated into structured creative movements, within imaginary scenarios, and accompanied by sounds or music. The activity was performed six times with a total of 112 students. It was an inclusive activity given that all students in the class participated, including children with several mild types of cognitive and neurological impairment. The science and art activity aroused emotions of enjoyment and pleasure and allowed for effective communication between scientists and school community. Moreover, the results provide evidence of the activity's effectiveness in engaging children and developing their willingness to further participate in similar activities.

https://doi.org/10.5194/gc-3-167-2020

Mills, L., Janeiro, J., Neves, A., Martins, F. (2020). The Impact of Sea Level Rise in the Guadiana Estuary. Journal of Computational Science, 44, 101169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocs.2020.101169

Mills, L., Janeiro, J., Neves, A., Martins, F.

Understanding the impact of sea level rise on coastal areas is crucial as a large percentage of the population live on the coast. This study uses computational tools to examine how two major consequences of sea level rise: salt intrusion and an increase in water volume affect the hydrodynamics and flooding areas of a major estuary in the Iberian Peninsula. A 2D numerical model created with the software MOHID was used to simulate the Guadiana Estuary in different scenarios of sea level rise combined with different freshwater flow rates considering varying tidal amplitudes. An increase in salinity was found in response to an increase in mean sea level in both high and low freshwater flow rates at all areas around the estuary. An increase in flooding areas around the estuary was also positively correlated with an increase in mean sea level.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocs.2020.101169

El Mahrad, B., Newton, A., Icely, J. D., Kacimi, I., Abalansa, S., Snoussi, M. (2020a). Contribution of Remote Sensing Technologies to Holistic Coastal and Marine Environmental Management Framework: Best Practices and Future Potential. Remote Sensing 2

El Mahrad, B., Newton, A., Icely, J. D., Kacimi, I., Abalansa, S., Snoussi, M.

Coastal and marine management require the evaluation of multiple environmental threats and issues. However, there are gaps in the necessary data and poor access or dissemination of existing data in many countries around the world. This research identifies how remote sensing can contribute to filling these gaps so that environmental agencies, such as the United Nations Environmental Programme, European Environmental Agency, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, can better implement environmental directives in a cost-effective manner. Remote sensing (RS) techniques generally allow for uniform data collection, with common acquisition and reporting methods, across large areas. Furthermore, these datasets are sometimes open-source, mainly when governments finance satellite missions. Some of these data can be used in holistic, coastal and marine environmental management frameworks, such as the DAPSI(W)R(M) framework (Drivers–Activities–Pressures–State changes–Impacts (on Welfare)–Responses (as Measures), an updated version of Drivers–Pressures–State–Impact–Responses. The framework is a useful and holistic problem-structuring framework that can be used to assess the causes, consequences, and responses to change in the marine environment. Six broad classifications of remote data collection technologies are reviewed for their potential contribution to integrated marine management, including Satellite-based Remote Sensing, Aerial Remote Sensing, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Unmanned Surface Vehicles, Unmanned Underwater Vehicles, and Static Sensors. A significant outcome of this study is practical inputs into each component of the DAPSI(W)R(M) framework. The RS applications are not expected to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide insight into the current use of the framework as a foundation for developing further holistic resource technologies for management strategies in the future. A significant outcome of this research will deliver practical insights for integrated coastal and marine management and demonstrate the usefulness of RS to support the implementation of environmental goals, descriptors, targets, and policies, such as the Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Ocean Health Index, and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Additionally, the opportunities and challenges of these technologies are discussed.

10.3390/rs12142313

Konstantinou, Z.I., Kombiadou, K. (2020). Rethinking suspended mussel-farming modelling: Combining hydrodynamic and bio-economic models to support integrated aquaculture management. Aquaculture, 523, 735179 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735

Konstantinou, Z.I., Kombiadou, K. 

Suspended mussel-farming using cultivation socks, either in long-line or traditional pole cultivation structures, is a widely spread activity around the world. The sustainability and efficiency of the activity depends on a number of interrelated parameters, as is the natural availability of food, the physical and ecological characteristics of the coastal or marine area and the farmers' choices. The natural parameter which influences the activity the most and which can be a major controlling parameter for integrated management is adequate and uninhibited water circulation. The individual characteristics of the farming structures, as well as their spatial placing, can influence circulation, thus affecting food distribution, growth rates, productivity and profits of the mussel-farming activity. To assess this influence in an integrated manner, it is necessary to work in different levels of analysis and transdisciplinary domains, utilising multiple simulation models and taking into consideration the particular characteristics of the activity in different areas. This paper aims to demonstrate such an integrated management approach through: i) the high resolution assessment of the effect of farming structures on circulation, using a novel parameterisation of the cultivation socks as porous media; ii) the calibration of a traditional drag coefficient based on the results of the high resolution experiments, allowing a lower resolution analysis, necessary to implement assessments in cultivation area level and iii) the analysis and evaluation of alternative spatial planning configurations, both regarding hydrodynamics and bio-economic characteristics of the mussel-farming activity. The case study, used to demonstrate the methodology, was Thermaikos Gulf, in Northern Greece, the area producing more than 80% of the national mussel production and which has been facing critical management problems for more than 20 years. The integrated modelling approach resulted in the successful use of porosity for high resolution modelling of suspended mussel-farming in socks and in the multi-level understanding of how the operational characteristics of the activity can influence its sustainability. Additionally, the results shed light in some of the most important problems of the Greek mussel-farming sector. Overall the approach demonstrates that integrated, social-ecological management of productive activities, like aquaculture, require the combination of multiple and transdisciplinary levels of analysis, the development of tailor-made modelling approaches and some outside-the-box thinking, to overcome difficulties related to the availability of information.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735179

Cravo, A., Rosa, A., Jacob, J., Correia, C. (2020). Dissolved oxygen dynamics in Ria Formosa lagoon - a real time monitoring station observatory. Marine Chemistry, 223, 1-14, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103806

Cravo, A., Rosa, A., Jacob, J., Correia, C.

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is considered one of the most important environmental variables of water quality. This work aimed to provide, for the first time, insights regarding DO dynamics on a representative site of the productive Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, south Europe, using a real time monitoring station observatory (acquiring data every 15 min) deployed for a period of two and a half years. This comprehensive data set represents an added value contributing to a better understanding of the DO variability throughout analyzing semidiurnal, daily, fortnightly tidal cycles (spring tide vs. neap tide), seasonal and interannual periods. This observational station was able to capture distinct temporal signatures, including episodic upwelling and meteorological events advancing the knowledge about the functioning of Ria Formosa. DO was highly variable presenting an evident seasonal distribution with the maximum concentration in spring and the minimum in summer night periods. Critical values <5 mg/L were recorded only in 3% of the global data set with negligible hypoxia events, showing infrequent DO stressful conditions in the study area. In addition, the disclosure of its diel dynamics over long periods, provided by this data set, allows to determine the impact of biological activity upon the DO variability and related ecosystem metabolism behavior (autotrophic vs. heterotrophic), through the metric estimation of Net Ecosystem Metabolism (NEM). NEM in the study area revealed to be slightly heterotrophic along one year of observation, reflecting the median percentage of DO saturation (93%). The acquired data set is highly valuable and can contribute to Ria Formosa management and protection, which is imperative for building knowledge-based societies.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103806

de Alencar, P.N.M., Le Tissier, M., Paterson, S.K., Newton, A. (2020). Circles of Coastal Sustainability: A Framework for Coastal Management. Sustainability 2020, 12, 4 886; doi:10.3390/su12124886

Natália M. P. de Alencar, Martin Le Tissier, Shona K. Paterson, Alice Newton 

The coastal zone is a space where many social, economic, and political activities intersect with natural processes. In this paper, we present an adaptation of the method of ‘Circles of Sustainability’, used to provide a visual assessment of indicators that define sustainability profiles for cities. It is used as a basis for a ‘Circles of Coastal Sustainability’ (CCS) framework that can be used at multiple spatial scales to assess indicators of critical processes that facilitate/constrain sustainability of the world’s coastal zones. The development of such a framework can support management by identifying key features that influence environmental sustainability and human well-being. CCS presents a holistic assessment of four interdependent boundary domains: Environment and Ecology, Social and Cultural, Economics, and Governance and Policy. This approach improves its utility and usability for decision-makers and researchers. CCS adds to existing assessment frameworks that are often focused on particular themes and/or domains that confine their utility to the context of sustainable development and the UN Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, which demand an inherently holistic and integrated evaluation. CCS is a holistic framework designed to assess the boundaries to sustainability for socio-ecological systems at multiple scales for the world’s coasts.

 https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124886

Borja, A., Andersen, J. H., Arvanitidis, C. D., Basset, A., Buhl-Mortensen, L., Carvalho, S., Dafforn, K., Devlin, M.J., EscobarBriones, E.G., Grenz, C., Harder, T., Katsanevakis, S., Liu, D., Metaxas, A., Morán, X.A.G., Newton, A., Piroddi C., Pochon X

Borja, A., Andersen, J. H., Arvanitidis, C. D., Basset, A., Buhl-Mortensen, L., Carvalho, S., Dafforn, K., Devlin, M.J., Escobar-Briones, E.G., Grenz, C., Harder, T., Katsanevakis, S., Liu, D., Metaxas, A., Morán, X.A.G., Newton, A., Piroddi C., Pochon X., Queiros A.M., Snelgrove P., Solidoro C., John M.A.S, Teixeira H.

Frontiers in Marine Science launched the Marine Ecosystems Ecology (FMARS-MEE) section in 2014, with a paper that identified eight grand challenges for the discipline (Borja, 2014). Since then, this section has published a total of 370 papers, including 336 addressing aspects of those challenges. As editors of the journal, with a wide range of marine ecology expertise, we felt it was timely to evaluate research advances related to those challenges; and to update the scope of the section to reflect the grand challenges we envision for the next 10 years. This output will match with the United Nations (UN) Decade on Oceans Science for Sustainable Development (DOSSD; Claudet et al., 2020), UN Decade of Ecosystems Restoration (DER; Young and Schwartz, 2019), and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs; Visbeck et al., 2014).

First, we analyzed each published paper and assigned their topic to a maximum of two out of the eight challenges (all information available in Supplementary Table 1). We then extracted the 3–5 most cited papers within each challenge using two criteria: the total number of citations during this 6-year period, and the annual citation rate (i.e., the mean annual number of citations since publication). We then collated the topics covered by this reduced list of papers (Table 1) and summarized the outcomes for each topic.
Not surprisingly, 50.5% of the papers dealt broadly with the role of marine biodiversity in maintaining ecosystem function, since they are related to the core of the journal section. They are followed by papers addressing relationships between human pressures and marine ecosystems (19.5%), and ecosystem modeling (11.6%). Just fewer than 10% of the papers were unrelated to any of the challenges defined by Borja (2014) (Table 1). Papers related to the assessment of ocean health had the highest impact, with a relatively high number of citations, despite the low number of papers published on the topic (Figure 1). In fact, of the top papers assigned to each challenge, those assessing ocean health received the highest annual mean number of citations, followed by papers on understanding relationships between human pressures and ecosystems, and those dealing with understanding the role of biodiversity in maintaining ecosystems functionality (Table 1).
The topics of the publications spanned all ecosystem components, from microbes to mammals; habitats from pelagic to benthic; many individual and multiple human pressures and natural stressors affecting species, their populations, communities and habitats; methodologies for monitoring, modeling, and assessment; conservation, protection, restoration, and recovery of marine ecosystems; global change effects; and different management issues (Table 1). Some of the papers that did not focus on the grand challenges dealt with a special Research Topic, for example, ocean literacy (Borja et al., 2020a).

https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.00362

. Ferreira, A., Sá, C., Silva, N., Beltrán, C., Dias, A. M., Brito, A. C. (2020). Phytoplankton response to nutrient pulses in an upwelling system assessed through a microcosm experiment (Algarrobo Bay, Chile). Ocean and Coastal Management, 190. https:/

Ferreira, A., Sá, C., Silva, N., Beltrán, C., Dias, A. M., Brito, A. C. 

Nutrient enrichment in coastal areas can lead to severe disturbances in marine ecosystems with implications on ecosystem functioning. The primary goal of this study was to understand the response of phytoplankton, from a region with intense upwelling events, to pulsed nutrient enrichments. A microcosm experiment using natural assemblages was conducted, following the addition of inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and considering two different nutrient limitation conditions (N:P<16 and N:P>16). Laboratory work included the analysis of nutrients, as well as phytoplankton cell abundances. A fast response to the pulsed nutrient enrichments were observed in both treatments as biomass increased. Although higher biomass values were found under higher N concentrations, the community's composition was similar in both treatments. Centric diatoms, particularly Chaetoceros spp., strengthened their dominance, suggesting that, under these conditions, these may have physiological advantages that promote their growth over other groups. Throughout the experiment, phytoflagellates and pennate diatoms were common, while dinoflagellates were scarce. This study contributes to understanding how phytoplankton communities' growth and composition relate to nutrient pulses. These results provide relevant data for environmental quality assessment and management of marine environments.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105167

Dinis, P. A., Carvalho, J., Callapez, P. M., Mendes, M. M., Santos, V. F., Fernandes, P. (2020). Composition of Lower Cretaceous mudstones of the Algarve Basin and implications for Iberian palaeoclimates. Cretaceous Research, 110. https://doi.org/10.101

Dinis, P. A., Carvalho, J., Callapez, P. M., Mendes, M. M., Santos, V. F., Fernandes, P.

Several compositional features of mudstones are controlled by climate-driven weathering and have been used to approximate palaeoclimatic conditions. Mudstone composition, however, is also influenced by the geology of the source areas and diverse depositional and post-depositional processes. The present geochemical and mineralogical study of the Lower Cretaceous (upper Hauterivian to Aptian) of the Algarve Basin (Southern Portugal) was performed to investigate the main factors that control mudstone composition and extract possible climatic signals. Clay mineralogy partially reflects diverse contributions of felsic vs. mafic and recycled materials, and the geochemical weathering proxies applied to the detrital component of mudstones are differently affected by provenance and hydraulic fractionation. Despite these facts, a wide set of compositional data allows some robust climatic interpretations. Apart from the early Aptian (Burgau Formation), when climate was probably wetter, hot and dry conditions prevailed in south Iberia during the investigated interval, with minimum humidity during the late Hauterivian–early Barremian (Salema Formation). Independent sedimentological and palaeontogical data support these interpretations. A comparison with compositional results for the Lusitanian Basin reveals substantially drier climates in southern than central and northern Iberia. Interpreted patterns of climatic evolution can be linked to shifts in air circulation from the sub-tropical high-pressure belt.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2020.104404

Kumar, M., Boski, T., González-Vila, F. J., Jiménez-Morillo, N. T., González-Pérez, J. A. (2020a). Characteristics of organic matter sources from Guadiana Estuary salt marsh sediments (SW Iberian Peninsula). Continental Shelf Research, 197. https://doi.

Kumar, M., Boski, T., González-Vila, F. J., Jiménez-Morillo, N. T., González-Pérez, J. A.

Estuaries are dynamic interfaces between land, rivers and the ocean that play major roles in the global carbon cycle. These coastal wetlands store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC), commonly known as “blue carbon” and excellent places to study C cycling. The Guadiana river estuary is among the most important tidal salt marshes in the South - Iberian coastal margin. Here, a detailed organic geochemical study is described that includes the identification of sedimentary OM composition at a molecular and isotopic level. Total organic carbon content (TOC) of core sediments ranged from 0.39 to 2.23% and stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) also showed a wide range between −22.4 and −27.0‰. A13C depletion trend observed from the surface to bottom in the core sediments profiles, reflects loss of labile biogenic 13C enriched compounds i.e. polysaccharides and a selective preservation of more depleted compounds with depth i.e. lignin and lipids in the core sediments. Series of n-alkanes were found in the range from C10 to C31. Carbon preference index ratio (CPI) calculated for long-chain n-alkanes (C24–C31) that ranged between 1.17 and 1.94 reflecting diverse OM inputs to the sediments. A study of the lignin-derived phenolic composition pointed to a recalcitrant OM derived from both gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Moreover, high abundance of vinyl phenol and vinyl guaiacol points to a dominant contribution of lignins from grasses and aquatic macrophytes to the sediments. A well-resolved series of long-chain linear alkyl benzenes (LABs from C4 to C22) were recorded in all core sediment samples indicating direct discharge of untreated domestic and/or industrial effluents to the estuary. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with more than 3 rings reflects the pyrogenic origin of a portion of the sedimentary OM. This study highlights the importance of different OM sources to the lower Guadiana estuarine sediments and contributes to a better knowledge about its origin, dynamics and fate.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2020.104076

Cabezas-Rabadán, C., Pardo-Pascual, J.E, Palomar-Vázquez, J., Ferreira, Ó., Costas, S. (2020). Satellite Derived Shorelines at an Exposed Meso-tidal Beach. Journal of Coastal Research, SI95, 1027–1031. DOI: 10.2112/SI95-200.1

Cabezas-Rabadán, C., Pardo-Pascual, J.E, Palomar-Vázquez, J., Ferreira, Ó., Costas, S. 

Shoreline position data offer extremely valuable information for understanding coastal dynamism and beach changes. This research applies SHOREX system for defining the shoreline position from free mid-resolution Landsat-8 (L8) and Sentinel-2 (S2) satellite imagery. This system allows an automatic definition of Satellite Derived Shorelines (SDS) over large regions and periods. Accuracy and utility of the resulting SDS have been previously assessed with positive results at low energy, microtidal, Mediterranean beaches. This work assesses SDS extracted using SHOREX at a mesotidal and moderate to highly (during storms) energetic environment, namely at Faro Beach, a barrier beach located in Ria Formosa (Algarve, South Portugal). Accuracy was defined for 14 SDS derived from S2 and 10 from L8 by measuring the differences in position with respect to the shoreline inferred from profiles obtained on close dates (or simultaneously) to imagery acquisition. For non-simultaneous datasets, the water level was estimated for the time of the satellite images acquisition using oceanographic data and run-up formulations. The measured and estimated shoreline positions were then compared with the extracted SDS. The overall accuracy is good, with errors about 5 m RMSE, supporting the application of the used methodology to define shoreline dynamics and evolution at challenging environments, as mesotidal exposed and dynamic beaches.

https://doi.org/10.2112/SI95-200.1

Jacob, J., Correia, C., Torres, A.F., Xufre, G., Matos, A., Ferreira, C., Reis, M.P., Caetano, S., Freitas, C. S., Barbosa, A.B., Cravo, A. (2020). Impacts of decommissioning and upgrading urban wastewater treatment plants on the water quality in a she

Jacob, J., Correia, C., Torres, A.F., Xufre, G., Matos, A., Ferreira, C., Reis, M.P., Caetano, S., Freitas, C. S., Barbosa, A.B., Cravo, A

Ria Formosa is a productive coastal lagoon, located on the south coast of Portugal, and represents the largest national producer of shellfish bivalves (ca. 90% production). This ecosystem is subjected to various anthropogenic pressures, including the discharge of urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTP), which impacts the lagoon water quality. This study aimed to assess the impact of alterations in the functioning of two UWWTP on the water quality of Ria Formosa, based on chemical variables, phytoplankton composition (including potential harmful species) and faecal contamination. During the period September 2018 - October 2019, water sampling was conducted along dominant longitudinal gradients of the effluent dispersion from the discharge point (1-2 km), for two sites: a decommissioned (OP) and a modified (FO) UWWTP. After modification, the later started receiving a higher influent volume (ca. 40%), under an innovative technology system (biological treatment in aerobic granular sludge). Based on chemical water quality variables, phytoplankton and indicators of faecal contamination, a significant improvement along the longitudinal gradient from the discharge point was observed after OP decommissioning. This improvement was fast, being detected two months after decommissioning, positively affecting areas used as shellfish farming grounds. However, distribution patterns of bacteriological indicators and regular shellfish harvesting interdictions suggested an alternative source of faecal contamination after OP decommissioning. At FO, both chemical variables and bacteriological indicators of faecal contamination revealed a slower improvement, only six-months after the UWWTP alteration. Before that, increased and highly variable ammonium, chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton abundances and Escherichia coli densities, revealed an unstable phase. Overall, a lower water quality at FO in respect to OP reflected not only a higher effluent volume but also more restricted water circulation for the former.

https://doi.org/10.2112/SI95-009.1

Lopez-Ruiz, A., Garel, E., Ferreira, O. (2020). The Effects of High River Discharges on the Morphodynamics of the Guadiana ebb-tidal delta, Journal of Coastal Research 95 (SI1), 558-562. DOI: 10.2112/SI95-109.1

Lopez-Ruiz, A., Garel, E., Ferreira, O.

This work analyses the role of high river discharges upon the morphodynamics of an ebb-tidal delta at a jettied inlet (the Guadiana river mouth, at the southern border between Portugal and Spain). The analysis is performed using a numerical model to simulate the effects of synthetic single high river discharge events with return periods ranging from 3 to 670 years. This model was calibrated and validated both for hydro- and morphodynamics. Results show that the area with mobile sediment over the delta varies strongly with the magnitude of the river discharge. Events peaking over 7,500 m3/s produce significant bathymetric variations at the delta, including scouring of the inlet channel, along with the offshore migration and volumetric growth of the outer shoal. Observations have indicated that the delta does not recover from these sudden morphological changes. However, the recent strong river flow regulation by dams has limited the maximum river discharges to 2,500 m3/s. Such vanishing of unusually high discharge events has affected both the short-term and long-term morphodynamics of the Guadiana ebb-tidal delta.

https://doi.org/10.2112/SI95-109.1

Kupfer, S., Ferreira, Ó., Costas, S. (2020). Assessment of Overwash-induced Flooding at Two Beaches along the Southwest Algarve, Portugal, Journal of Coastal Research, SI95,484-489. DOI: 10.2112/SI95-094.1

Kupfer, S., Ferreira, Ó., Costas, S.

At the Algarve south coast overwash-induced floods are a frequent and destructive phenomenon. In this study return periods for overwash potentials are estimated for two beaches located at the southwest coast of the Algarve (Carvoeiro and Salema) based on runup calculations for the period 1995-2017 after applying two well validated empirical formulations. Results show that overwash potentials are high even for small return periods. Additionally, the suitability of two different indicators (overwash potential and overwash depth) has been tested to represent the flood extent. Results suggest that the flood extent derived from the overwash depth presents several limitations and cannot realistically represent observations, while the flood extent given by the overwash potential (using a simple bathtub approach) fairly represents the overwash-induced flood, even though it can over/underestimate the flood extent for gentle/steep inland slopes. Flood extents derived from the overwash potential, for return periods of 10- and 100-year, show that occupied areas are potentially flooded for both return periods. It is therefore necessary to define appropriate adaptation measures for both beaches, preferably based on detailed risk assessment.

https://doi.org/10.2112/SI95-094.1

Oliveira, S., Moura, D., Boski, T. (2020). The evolution of the European framework for coastal management linked to new environmental challenges. The Portuguese case. Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, 20 (1). http:// www.aprh.pt/rgci/pdf/rgc

Oliveira, S., Moura, D., Boski, T.

The sharing of space by various human activities leading to social conflicts and threats to ecosystems, alongside increased awareness of the threats to coastal zones has created the need to legislate on coastal planning and integrated management by developing international guidelines. A new management challenge has emerged due to climate change that had not previously been considered in legislation or policies. Therefore, the European tools and frameworks applied in Portugal, their implementation and effectiveness will be analysed. Extensive bibliographic data was analysed including EU directives and policies, and Portuguese governmental documents from national to a municipal level. We found that all the European Union guidelines and frameworks are being implemented in the Portuguese Governmental planning and are very well substantiated, whereas the base of all land management instruments (IGT), have a questionable implementation, mainly due to the number of entities involved and the long implementation process.

http:// www.aprh.pt/rgci/pdf/rgci-n213_Oliveira.pdf

Kumar, M., Boski, T., González-Vila, F. J., de la Rosa, J. M., González-Pérez, J. A. (2020b). Discerning natural and anthropogenic organic matter inputs to salt marsh sediments of Ria Formosa lagoon (South Portugal). Environmental Science and Pollution

Kumar, M., Boski, T., González-Vila, F. J., de la Rosa, J. M., González-Pérez, J. A.

Sedimentary organic matter (OM) origin and molecular composition provide useful information to understand carbon cycling in coastal wetlands. Core sediments from threors’ Contributionse transects along Ria Formosa lagoon intertidal zone were analysed using analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) to determine composition, distribution and origin of sedimentary OM. The distribution of alkyl compounds (alkanes, alkanoic acids and alkan-2-ones), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lignin-derived methoxyphenols, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), steranes and hopanes indicated OM inputs to the intertidal environment from natural—autochthonous and allochthonous—as well as anthropogenic. Several n-alkane geochemical indices used to assess the distribution of main OM sources (terrestrial and marine) in the sediments indicate that algal and aquatic macrophyte derived OM inputs dominated over terrigenous plant sources. The lignin-derived methoxyphenol assemblage, dominated by vinylguaiacol and vinylsyringol derivatives in all sediments, points to large OM contribution from higher plants. The spatial distributions of PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) showed that most pollution sources were mixed sources including both pyrogenic and petrogenic. Low carbon preference indexes (CPI > 1) for n-alkanes, the presence of UCM (unresolved complex mixture) and the distribution of hopanes (C29–C36) and steranes (C27–C29) suggested localized petroleum-derived hydrocarbon inputs to the core sediments. Series of LABs were found in most sediment samples also pointing to domestic sewage anthropogenic contributions to the sediment OM.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09235-9

Tilstone, G., Dall’Olmo, G., Hieronymi, M., Ruddick, K., Beck, M., Ligi, M., Costa, M., D’alimonte, D., Vellucci, V.,Vansteenwegen, D., Astrid, B., Wiegmann, S., Kuusk, J., Vabson, V., Ansko, I., Vendt, R., Donlon, C., Casal, T. (2020). Field intercompar

Tilstone, G., Dall’Olmo, G., Hieronymi, M., Ruddick, K., Beck, M., Ligi, M., Costa, M., D’alimonte, D., Vellucci, V., Vansteenwegen, D., Astrid, B., Wiegmann, S., Kuusk, J., Vabson, V., Ansko, I., Vendt, R., Donlon, C., Casal, T.

A field intercomparison was conducted at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea, from 9 to 19 July 2018 to assess differences in the accuracy of in- and above-water radiometer measurements used for the validation of ocean colour products. Ten measurement systems were compared. Prior to the intercomparison, the absolute radiometric calibration of all sensors was carried out using the same standards and methods at the same reference laboratory. Measurements were performed under clear sky conditions, relatively low sun zenith angles, moderately low sea state and on the same deployment platform and frame (except in-water systems). The weighted average of five above-water measurements was used as baseline reference for comparisons. For downwelling irradiance ( Ed ), there was generally good agreement between sensors with differences of <6% for most of the sensors over the spectral range 400 nm–665 nm. One sensor exhibited a systematic bias, of up to 11%, due to poor cosine response. For sky radiance ( Lsky ) the spectrally averaged difference between optical systems was <2.5% with a root mean square error (RMS) <0.01 mWm−2 nm−1 sr−1. For total above-water upwelling radiance ( Lt ), the difference was <3.5% with an RMS <0.009 mWm−2 nm−1 sr−1. For remote-sensing reflectance ( Rrs ), the differences between above-water TriOS RAMSES were <3.5% and <2.5% at 443 and 560 nm, respectively, and were <7.5% for some systems at 665 nm. Seabird-Hyperspectral Surface Acquisition System (HyperSAS) sensors were on average within 3.5% at 443 nm, 1% at 560 nm, and 3% at 665 nm. The differences between the weighted mean of the above-water and in-water systems was <15.8% across visible bands. A sensitivity analysis showed that Ed accounted for the largest fraction of the variance in Rrs , which suggests that minimizing the errors arising from this measurement is the most important variable in reducing the inter-group differences in Rrs . The differences may also be due, in part, to using five of the above-water systems as a reference. To avoid this, in situ normalized water-leaving radiance ( Lwn ) was therefore compared to AERONET-OC SeaPRiSM Lwn as an alternative reference measurement. For the TriOS-RAMSES and Seabird-HyperSAS sensors the differences were similar across the visible spectra with 4.7% and 4.9%, respectively. The difference between SeaPRiSM Lwn and two in-water systems at blue, green and red bands was 11.8%. This was partly due to temporal and spatial differences in sampling between the in-water and above-water systems and possibly due to uncertainties in instrument self-shading for one of the in-water measurements.

https://doi. org/10.3390/rs12101587

Rodrigues, M., Cravo, A., Freire, P., Rosa, A., Santos, D. (2020). Temporal assessment of the water quality along an urban estuary (Tagus estuary, Portugal). Marine Chemistry, 223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103824

Rodrigues, M., Cravo, A., Freire, P., Rosa, A., Santos, D.

Understanding the natural dynamics of estuaries and their response to changes in the human-related or climatic drivers is fundamental to guarantee their environmental quality. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the water quality dynamics in an urban estuary, the Tagus estuary (Portugal), across different temporal scales. This estuary supports diverse uses and activities and its ecological value is well recognized. Three field campaigns were performed covering distinct seasons (Spring, Summer and Autumn – 2018). Physical, chemical and biological data were measured along the estuary. The acquired data was then integrated into a set of indicators and compared with historical data, to assess the long-term evolution of the water quality in the estuary. Results showed marked spatial gradients, typically with larger concentrations of chlorophyll a, nitrate and silicate upstream. Silicate and nitrate presented a conservative behavior. Ammonium and phosphate were not conservative, which suggests an anthropogenic pressure along the estuary. Seasonally, the highest nutrients and suspended solids concentrations were found in Autumn, after a period of rainfall, pointing out to the relevance of land runoff for material supply into the estuary. These conditions were favorable for phytoplankton development upstream, once chlorophyll a was maximum during this campaign (24 μg/L in the upper estuary). Regarding the nutrients classification, results suggest that the upper estuary is at risk with a “Medium” status. The middle and downstream areas presented a “High” status, with the exception of the middle-right margin that is also at risk (“Medium” status). The assessment of the historical data suggests that high loads of nutrients have been reaching the Tagus estuary over time, with a decreasing trend in recent years. The trophic index (TRIX) suggests a “Moderate” trophic status in the middle and upstream areas of the estuary. As for nutrients, a “Poor” classification was obtained in the middle-right margin of the estuary, mainly due to ammonium concentrations, confirming an intensification of anthropogenic pressure at this site. Similarly to the nutrients status, TRIX suggests some improvement of the water quality in the Tagus estuary in recent years compared to the 1980s. These results provide further insight regarding the water quality dynamics in the Tagus estuary and are useful to support management.

10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103824

El-Guendouz, S., Aazza, S., Dandlen, S.A., Majdoub, N., Lyoussi, B., Raposo, S., Gomes, V., Bankova, V., Popova, M., Antunes, D., Miguel, M.G. (2020). Natural antioxidants in emulsions O/W. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 75 (9-10): 319- 325. https://d

El-Guendouz, S., Aazza, S., Dandlen, S.A., Majdoub, N., Lyoussi, B., Raposo, S., Gomes, V., Bankova, V., Popova, M.,
Antunes, D., Miguel, M.G.

This study compared the capacity of propolisextract (PE) and thyme waste extract (TWE) to prevent theoxidation of oil in water (O/W) emulsion, as well as theirimpact on emulsion apparent viscosity (AV) in the presenceof wheat germ and almond oils as lipid phase. For this,central composite design (CCD) and principal componentanalysis (PCA) were performed. Oxidation process wasmonitored by evaluating the formation of primary and sec-ondary lipid oxidation products, at the same time the AVbehavior was determined evaluating consistency index andflow behavior index. The results revealed that the increase of PE% and TWE% decreases TBARS (Thiobarbituric AcidReactive Substances) and hydroperoxides formation. Vis-cosity increases with the rise of TWE% over (0.04%),whereas lower concentrations of PE% decreases it. Thoseresults have been confirmed in the PCA analysis. TWEshowed higher resistance to oxidation, although PE wasmore effective as antioxidant than TWE.

https://doi.org/10.1515/ZNC-2020-0003

Duarte Pinto, V., Martins, C., Rodrigues, J., Pires Rosa, M. (2020) Improving access to greenspaces in the Mediterranean city of Faro. Aims environmental science, 7(3), 226-246 (21), doi: 10.3934/environsci.2020014

Duarte Pinto, V., Martins, C., Rodrigues, J., Pires Rosa, M. 

Green infrastructure has received increasing attention in urban strategies in a sustainable and resilience context, since greenspaces provide diverse ecosystem services. Green roofs can be a form of compensating the loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity in urban areas, contribute to safe access to greenspaces, which is important in times of social isolation, due to viral pandemics, and can guarantee self-reliance food. Thus, this urban measure should be integrated in urban planning and management, by using urban indicators associated with citizens access to greenspaces. Hence, we study pedestrian accessibility to green areas and propose an urban solution to improve access to greenspaces. The assessment is developed using indicators related to the citizens living in the surroundings of green areas and the residential buildings that exist in these areas; the residents living in potential green buildings or blocks with private green roofs and the potential green buildings with private green roofs. The ideal standard distances were considered to analyze the proximity of green areas to the dwellings of residents. We used GIS for the assessment of distances over the pedestrian network. The results indicate the necessity of building green roofs through the private sector. The developed indicators provide an important contribution to the municipal management in the definition of criteria for the urban location of green roofs to promote better access to ecosystem services.

10.3934/environsci.2020014

Domingues, R.B., Carmo, C. (2020). Orthorexia nervosa in yoga practitioners: relationship with personality, attitudes about appearance, and yoga engagement, Eating and Weight Disorders, 1590-1262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519- 020-00911-w

Domingues, R.B., Carmo, C.

Purpose
Disordered eating symptoms and a high prevalence of orthorexia nervosa can be found in yoga practitioners. Given that yoga is increasingly used as a complementary treatment for eating disorders (ED), understanding the relationship between yoga practice and the development of disordered eating is crucial to guide treatment recommendations. The goal of this work is, therefore, to study the relationships between orthorexia nervosa (ON) and potential risk factors for ON, in an international sample of experienced yoga practitioners.

Method
An online questionnaire that included several psychometric instruments was responded by 469 yoga practitioners. Instruments used were the Teruel orthorexia scale, Yoga immersion scale, Passion scale, Frost multidimensional perfectionism scale, Self-discipline scale of NEO-PI-R, Drive for thinness scale of EDI, and Beliefs about appearance scale. Descriptive statistics, correlational analysis and multiple regression were used to evaluate relationships between ON and the other variables.

Results
The main predictors of orthorexia nervosa were the drive for thinness and a healthy orthorexia, suggesting that, like in anorexia and bulimia, orthorexic individuals are also concerned with food quantity and physical appearance, rather than just food quality.

Conclusions
The potential effects of yoga on eating behaviours and attitudes of long-term practitioners, particularly the high prevalence of orthorexia nervosa and the concern for physical appearance, should be taken into consideration when using yoga as prevention or treatment for eating disorders.

Level of evidence
Level V, descriptive cross-sectional study.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519- 020-00911-w

Sroczyńska, K., Williamson, T. J., Claro, M., González-Pérez, J. A., Range, P., Boski, T., Chícharo, L. (2020). Food web structure of three Mediterranean stream reaches along a gradient of anthropogenic impact. Hydrobiologia, 847(10), 2357–2375. https:/

Sroczyńska, K., Williamson, T. J., Claro, M., González-Pérez, J. A., Range, P., Boski, T., Chícharo, L.

Anthropogenic impact can alter food web structure through changes in species interactions. In this study, we explored the food web of three Mediterranean stream reaches (two seasonal and one permanent) along an anthropogenic impact gradient to test the hypothesis that increasing impact simplifies food webs. To test this, we applied the isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) niche concept to compare reaches using isotopic metrics (isotopic richness, divergence, dispersion, evenness, and redundancy). The isotopic indices were useful to identify differences in food web architecture among the three reaches. The least impacted site had the highest isotopic richness, dispersion, and isotopic redundancy, suggesting higher ecological resilience at this site. The effect of disturbance in the remaining two sites was masked by the presence of invasive crayfish, which increased isotopic divergence and was responsible for higher food-chain length in the most impacted reach, but not in the moderately impacted reach. Consumers displayed generalistic feeding habits, with Bayesian mixing models indicating that they relied primarily on a mixture of periphyton, other macroinvertebrates, and to a lesser extent, detritus. Some taxa displayed changes in their dietary habitats depending on the site, indicating that the same type of taxa fed on distinct foods at each stream reach.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-020-04263-5

El Mahrad, B., Abalansa, S., Newton, A., Icely, J.D., Snoussi, M., Kacimi, I. (2020b). Social-Environmental Analysis for the Management of Coastal Lagoons in North Africa. Frontiers in Environmental Science 8:37. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fenvs.2020.0003

El Mahrad, B., Abalansa, S., Newton, A., Icely, J.D., Snoussi, M., Kacimi, I. 

This study provides an overview of 11 lagoons in North Africa, from the Atlantic to the Eastern Mediterranean. Lagoons are complex, transitional, coastal zones providing valuable ecosystem services that contribute to the welfare of the human population. The main economic sectors in the lagoons included fishing, shellfish harvesting, and salt and sand extraction, as well as maritime transport. Economic sectors in the areas around the lagoons and in the watershed included agriculture, tourism, recreation, industrial, and urban development. Changes were also identified in land use from reclamation, changes in hydrology, changes in sedimentology from damming, inlet modifications, and coastal engineering. The human activities in and around the lagoons exert multiple pressures on these ecosystems and result in changes in the environment, affecting salinity, dissolved oxygen, and erosion; changes in the ecology, such as loss of biodiversity; and changes in the delivery of valuable ecosystem services. Loss of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and seafood affect human populations that live around the lagoons and depend on them for their livelihood. Adaptive management frameworks for social–ecological systems provide options that support decision makers with science-based knowledge to deliver sustainable development for ecosystems. The framework used to support the decision makers for environmental management of these 11 lagoons is Drivers–Activities–Pressures–State Change–Impact (on Welfare)–Responses (as Measures).

https://doi.org/10.3389/ fenvs.2020.00037

Cai, H., Zhang, P., Garel, E., Matte, P., Hu, S., Liu, F., Yang, Q. (2020). A novel approach for the assessment of morphological evolution based on observed water levels in tide-dominated estuaries. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 24, 1871–1889. DOI

Cai, H., Zhang, P., Garel, E., Matte, P., Hu, S., Liu, F., Yang, Q. 

Assessing the impacts of both natural (e.g. tidal forcing from the ocean) and human-induced changes (e.g. dredging for navigation and land reclamation) on estuarine morphology is particularly important for the protection and management of the estuarine environment. In this study, a novel analytical approach is proposed for the assessment of estuarine morphological evolution in terms of tidally averaged depth on the basis of the observed water levels along the estuary. The key lies in deriving a relationship between wave celerity and tidal damping or amplification. For given observed water levels at two gauging stations, it is possible to have a first estimation of both wave celerity (distance divided by tidal travelling time) and tidal damping or amplification rate (tidal range difference divided by distance), which can then be used to predict the morphological changes via an inverse analytical model for tidal hydrodynamics. The proposed method is applied to the Lingdingyang Bay of the Pearl River Estuary, located on the southern coast of China, to analyse the historical development of the tidal hydrodynamics and morphological evolution. The analytical results show surprisingly good correspondence with observed water depth and volume in this system. The merit of the proposed method is that it provides a simple approach for understanding the decadal evolution of the estuarine morphology through the use of observed water levels, which are usually available and can be easily measured.

DOI: 10.5194/hess-24-1871-2020

 

Gonçalves, J.M., Rocha, T., Mestre, N.C., Fonseca, T.G., Bebianno, M.J. (2020). Assessing cadmium-based quantum dots effect on the gonads of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Marine Environmental Research 156, 104904. http://dx.doi.org/10.101

Gonçalves, J.M., Rocha, T., Mestre, N.C., Fonseca, T.G., Bebianno, M.J.

This study assesses the sex-specific effects induced by CdTe QDs, on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in comparison to its dissolved counterpart. A 14 days exposure to CdTe QDs and dissolved Cd was conducted (10 μg Cd L-1), analysing Cd accumulation, oxidative stress, biotransformation, metallothionein and oxidative damage in the gonads. Both Cd forms caused significant antioxidant alterations, whereby QDs were more pro-oxidant, leading to oxidative damage, being females more affected. Overall, biochemical impairments on gonads of M. galloprovincialis demonstrate that the reproductive toxicity induced by CdTe QDs in mussels are sex-dependent and mediated by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. It is crucial to acknowledge how gametes are affected by metal-based nanoparticles, such as Cd-based QDs. As well as understanding the potential changes they may undergo at the cellular level during gametogenesis, embryogenesis and larval development potentially leading to serious impacts on population sustainability and ecosystem health.

10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.104904

Domingues, R.B., Gonçalves, G. (2020). Assessing environmental attitudes in Portugal using a new short version of the Environmental Attitudes Inventory, Current Psychology, 39, 629-639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9786-x

Domingues, R.B., Gonçalves, G.

Most environmental problems are caused and/or enhanced by human behaviour; thus, it is crucial to understand environmental attitudes that underlie individual’s behaviour towards the environment. In Portugal, a highly vulnerable region to environmental change and serious local-scale natural hazards, environmental attitudes have never been systematically addressed. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to evaluate environmental attitudes in a Portuguese sample using the most appropriate short version of Milfont & Duckitt’s Environmental Attitudes Inventory (Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(1) 80–94, 2010). Reliability and validity analyses showed that the 36-item version of the Environmental Attitudes Inventory (EAI-36) was more adequate than the 24-item version. Using EAI-36, preservation and utilisation emerged as orthogonal dimensions, forming the vertical structure of environmental attitudes, and were negatively and moderately correlated in the Portuguese sample, expressing an ecocentric viewpoint. Mean scores for the first- and second-order factors were similar to values from other developed countries. Differences in age, gender and study area were found, with older participants, women and individuals from the natural sciences showing higher levels on preservation and lower on utilisation.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9786-x

Galparsoro, I., Murillas, A., Pinarbasi, K., Sequeira, A.M., Stelzenmüller, V., Borja, Á., O´ Hagan, A.M., Boyd, A., Bricker, S., Garmendia, J.M., Gimpel, A., Gangnery, A.,Billing, S-L, Bergh, Ø., Strand, Ø., Hiu, Liu, Fragoso, B., Icely, J., Ren, J.,

Galparsoro, I., Murillas, A., Pinarbasi, K., Sequeira, A.M., Stelzenmüller, V., Borja, Á., O´ Hagan, A.M., Boyd, A.,
Bricker, S., Garmendia, J.M., Gimpel, A., Gangnery, A.,Billing, S-L, Bergh, Ø., Strand, Ø., Hiu, Liu, Fragoso, B., Icely, J.,
Ren, J., Papageorgiou, N., Grant, J., Tett, P.

Marine aquaculture is the most promising industry for ensuring future provision of seafood. Yet, the worldwide growth and expansion of this industry have been slower than expected, calling for the identification of environmentally suitable sites while accounting for all factors that could constrain or benefit its establishment. Here, we determine the main obstacles and risks hindering the growth and expansion of marine aquaculture, as well as the needs and recommendations to overcome such constraints. Our analysis is based on results obtained from a consultation process held in 16 study sites located around the world with the participation of 614 stakeholders representing the research community, aquaculture industry, government, conservation groups, and education and fishermen associations. A high level of commonality exists in the main issues hindering aquaculture growth and expansion in coastal, off‐the‐coast and offshore aquaculture with most being attributed to interactions with other maritime activities, including conflicts with other users and administrative procedures, including licensing. Critical needs for improved management and expansion of the aquaculture industry are related to planning and management of developments and technological advances, with economic and market needs featuring to a lesser extent. Key procedures recommended to assist further aquaculture growth are the standardisation and simplification of regulatory frameworks, improvement of governance, and the adoption of participatory processes to facilitate meaningful and productive stakeholder engagement. We strongly recommend stakeholder participation to enhance insights on the full environmental and human dimensions of marine management and for implementation of ecosystem‐based marine spatial planning.

https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12422

Fonseca, A. L., Newton, A., Cabral, A. (2020). Local and meso-scale pressures in the eutrophication process of a coastal subtropical system: Challenges for effective management, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 107109, https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ec

Fonseca, A. L., Newton, A., Cabral, A.

Natural and anthropogenic pressures drive coastal eutrophication worldwide, depending on the system's physical and biogeochemical dynamics in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the complexity of this process is essential to support management efforts and sustainability. Nutrients load to the Bay of Santa Catarina Island (BSCI), an important area for mollusc aquaculture, fisheries and tourism in Brazil, were assessed to identify the pressures of the eutrophication process. An updated Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response framework was used to facilitate the understanding of the relationship between human activities and impacts on human welfare. Pressures from runoff and effluents from combined sources resulted in inputs of 1998 t N.year−1 and 155 t P.year−1 to the system. The watersheds were characterized as meso-active to eury-active for both N and P yields. In addition to the local anthropogenic pressures, meso-scale events, such as the seasonal influence of the Plata Plume River, act as an external source of nutrients, sometimes associated with harmful algae bloom events. The results show that eutrophication and its symptoms could impact 85% of the ecosystem services of the region. Management of eutrophication at BSCI requires integrated actions between the nine municipalities of the watershed, but there are obstacles in environmental legislation and political interest to promote it. This study provides the scientific basis for stakeholders and decision-makers to establish priorities and actions in coastal municipalities to minimize eutrophication.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2020.107109

Pinto, P., Oliveira-Junior, J. M. B., Leitão, F., Morais, M. M., Chícharo, L., Vaz, P., Delgado, S.M.A., Voreadou, C., Morales, E.A., Teodósio, M. A. (2020). Development of a metric of aquatic invertebrates for volunteers (MAIV): A simple and friendly

Pinto, P., Oliveira-Junior, J. M. B., Leitão, F., Morais, M. M., Chícharo, L., Vaz, P., Delgado, S.M.A., Voreadou, C., Morales, E.A., Teodósio, M. A.

Citizen science activities, involving local people in volunteer-supported and sustainable monitoring programs, are common. In this context, the objective of the present work was to develop a simple Metric of Aquatic Invertebrates for Volunteers (MAIV), including a user-friendly tool that can be easily accessed by volunteers, and to evaluate the efficiency of a volunteer monitoring program following an audit procedure. To obtain MAIV values, macroinvertebrate communities were reduced to 18 surrogate taxa, which represented an acceptable compromise between simplicity, efficiency, and reproducibility of the data, compared to the regular Water Framework Directive monitoring. When compared to results obtained with the National Classification System of Portugal, MAIV accurately detected moderate, poor, and bad ecological status. Thus, MAIV can be used by volunteers as a complement to the official monitoring program, as well as a prospective early warning tool for local problems related to ecological quality. Volunteers were students supervised by their teachers. Results obtained by volunteers were compared to results obtained by experts on macroinvertebrate identification to measure the efficiency of the procedure, by counting gains and losses on sorting, and identification. Characteristics of groups of volunteers (age and school level) did not influence significantly the efficiency of the procedure, and generally results of volunteers and experts matched.

https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030654

Lourenço, C.R., Nicastro, K.R., McQuaid, C.D., Krug, L.A., Zardi, G.I. (2020). Strong upwelling conditions drive differences in species abundance and community composition along the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Western Sahara. Marine Biodiversity, 50,

Lourenço, C.R., Nicastro, K.R., McQuaid, C.D., Krug, L.A., Zardi, G.I.

Upwelling strongly influences the composition and dynamics of coastal communities by affecting species abundances, recruitment, dispersal and distribution. Coastal upwelling areas are key model regions to study the responses of coastal species to climate change because they are characterized by cooler water conditions and experience lower warming rates than adjacent regions, making them effective ‘control’ or refuge sites. This is particularly true for the benthic species of rocky shores in upwelling areas because they are sedentary, inhabit the interface between marine and terrestrial habitats, are exposed to extremely severe and variable environmental conditions and often live near their tolerance limits. We sampled roughly 2000 km of the Atlantic coast of Morocco and Western Sahara to assess the influence of upwelling cells on patterns of diversity and abundance of northern African rocky shore species. We recorded 186 taxa, providing clarification of the distribution of 141 algae and documenting nine new species records for Morocco and Western Sahara. The results emphasize the influence of upwelling on the abundance and distribution of these organisms. The contrast between non-upwelling and upwelling areas highlights the direct and indirect importance of water temperature in shaping these communities, pointing to the consequences of large-scale warming. Such warming is likely to threaten intertidal species that already live close to their thermal tolerance limits and are not buffered by the effects of upwelling.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12526-019-01032-z

Teixeira, M. A. C., Argaín J. L. (2020). The dependence of mountain wave reflection on the abruptness of atmospheric profile variations, accepted for publication in the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 146, 729, https:// doi.org/10.

Teixeira, M. A. C., Argaín J. L.

It is known from geometric optics that a change in refractive index is potentially reflective if it occurs over scales much smaller than the wavelength of the incident waves. The limitations of this assumption for hydrostatic orographic gravity waves are tested here using linear theory and a method recently developed by the authors to evaluate the reflection coefficient, based on the wave drag. Two atmospheric profiles optimally suited to this method are adopted, the first with piecewise constant static stability (representative of a tropopause), and the second with constant wind speed near the surface, and a linearly decreasing wind aloft below a critical level (relevant to downslope windstorms). Both profiles consist of two atmospheric layers separated by a transition layer with controllable thickness, where the parameters vary continuously. The variation of the reflection coefficient between its maximum (for a zero‐thickness transition layer) and zero, as the ratio of the thickness of the transition layer to the vertical wavelength increases, is studied systematically. The reflection coefficient attains half of its maximum for a value of this ratio of about 0.3, but its exact variation depends on the jump in static stability between the two layers in the first profile, and the Richardson number at the critical level in the second. For a stronger contrast between the two layers, the reflection coefficient is larger, but also decays to zero faster for thinner transition layers. According to these results, most atmospheric profile features perceived as discontinuities are likely to have close‐to‐maximum reflection coefficients, and the variation of atmospheric parameters over a sizeable fraction of the troposphere can still lead to significant wave reflection. These results seem to hold quantitatively to a good degree of approximation in moderately nonlinear flow for the first atmospheric profile, but only qualitatively for the second one.

 

Abrogueña, J. B. R., Range, P., Cruz, W., Tentia-Lagumen, M. C., Chicharo, L. (2020). Fish communities and environmental variables during dry season in Pampanga estuary (Philippines). Regional Studies in Marine Science, 34. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.rsma

Abrogueña, J. B. R., Range, P., Cruz, W., Tentia-Lagumen, M. C., Chicharo, L. 

Baseline assessment of fish communities and selected environmental variables (salinity, water temperature, water transparency, current speed, total suspended solid, chlorophyll a) was conducted in Pampanga estuary (Philippines) during a specific dry season (April 2010). The aims were: (a) to examine the variations of fish diversity and community structure, in relation to neap and spring tides and estuary zones and; (b) to examine the influence of environmental variables on fish communities. Reconnaissance showed that salinity was measurable at 6.8 kilometers from the rivermouth, for the surface and mid-water layers, and at 15.9 kilometers for the bottom layers, indicating the occurrence of a salt wedge. Bottom salinity was used to establish the sampling stations, grouped into 3 zones (lower 1–3, middle 4–6, upper 7–9). Sampling of fish, using otter trawl, and measurement of environmental variables were done under four tidal conditions at each station (neap low and high tide; spring low and high tide). Neap tide showed low and homogenous horizontal salinity, higher temperature, slower current speed, high TSS and chlorophyll a, whereas, spring tide showed higher salinity, horizontal saline stratification, lower temperature, faster current speed, low TSS and chlorophyll a. A total of 330 fish were captured from 32 trawl samples, encompassing 20 families and 27 species. Number of species generally did not vary between neap (20) and spring tide (18), but showed a decreasing pattern from lower to the upper estuary. Only 36% of total species were shared between neap and spring tides. Fish abundance was significantly affected by neap and spring tide, and zonation, whereas fish biomass was solely affected by zonation. Arius manillensis was the most typifying species, suggesting high probability of encounter. Chlorophyll a, TSS, salinity and current speed have a significant influence on the variations of abundance, biomass and frequency of occurrence of particular fish species.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2020.101053

Cruz, J., Teodósio, M. A., Garrido, S., Ben-Hamadou, R., Chícharo, L., Ré, P., Santos, A. M. P. (2020). Plankton community and copepod production in a temperate coastal lagoon: What is changing in a short temporal scale? Journal of Sea Research, 157. h

Cruz, J., Teodósio, M. A., Garrido, S., Ben-Hamadou, R., Chícharo, L., Ré, P., Santos, A. M. P.

Coastal lagoons are often exposed to intense short-term environmental changes and strong anthropogenic pressures influencing zooplanktonic communities and production. However, most works focus on long-term temporal scales using monthly or seasonal sampling strategies. The present study analysed the structure of the mesozooplanktonic assemblages, the production (egg production rates) and physiological condition (RNA:DNA ratio) of the copepod Acartia clausi in a temperate coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa) during the summer, using an intensive sampling approach. Salinity was the main factor affecting the short-term variability of mesozooplankton composition, followed by tidal phase (ebb tides) and semilunar cycle (spring tides). There was a positive relationship between the abundance of Appendicularia and the cladoceran Penilia avirostris with the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, suggesting no deleterious effects. The egg production rate of A. clausi was influenced by salinity and ammonia concentration, with a positive correlation between the egg productivity and the macronutrient, showing a possible adaptation of this calanoid species. The RNA:DNA index was positively related to egg production rate, suggesting that it is a good proxy for the reproductive output of copepods, even in short-term periods. This study shows that different timescales need to be included in regular monitoring of planktonic assemblages in coastal lagoons in order to understand the influence of environmental and anthropogenic variables on marine organisms.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2020.101858

Tarasco, M., Martins, G., Gavaia, P. J., Bebianno, M, J., Cancela, M. L., Laizé, V. (2020). ZEB316: A Small StandAlone Housing System to Study Microplastics in Small Teleosts. Zebrafish 17 1: 18-26, http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ zeb.2019.1801.10.1089

Tarasco, M., Martins, G., Gavaia, P. J., Bebianno, M, J., Cancela, M. L., Laizé, V.

Many anthropogenic chemicals and plastic debris end up in the aquatic ecosystem worldwide, representing a major concern for the environment and human health. Small teleosts, such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), offer significant advantages over classical animal models and are currently used as first-line organisms to assess environmental risks associated with many aquatic toxicants. Toxicological studies require the use of inert materials and controlled conditions. Yet, none of the available commercialized systems is adequate to assess the toxic effect of microplastics, because they contain components made of plastic polymers that may release micrometric plastic particles, leach manufacturing compounds, or adsorb chemicals. The ZEB316 stand-alone housing system presented in this study is meant to be a cost-effective and easy-to-built solution to perform state-of-the-art toxicological studies. It is built with inert and corrosion-resistant materials and provides good housing conditions through efficient recirculation and filtration systems. Assessment of water parameters and fish growth performance showed that the ZEB316 provides housing conditions comparable to those available from commercial housing systems.

https://doi.org/10.1089/zeb.2019.1801

Lazarus, E.D., Davenport, K.L., Matias, A. (2020). Dynamic allometry in coastal overwash morphology. Earth Surface Dynamics, 8, 37-50. doi.org/10.5194/esurf-2019-39. https://www.earth-surf-dynam-discuss.net/esurf-2019-39/

Lazarus, E.D., Davenport, K.L., Matias, A.

Allometry refers to a physical principle in which geometric (and/or metabolic) characteristics of an object or organism are correlated to its size. Allometric scaling relationships typically manifest as power laws. In geomorphic contexts, scaling relationships are a quantitative signature of organization, structure, or regularity in a landscape, even if the mechanistic processes responsible for creating such a pattern are unclear. Despite the ubiquity and variety of scaling relationships in physical landscapes, the emergence and development of these relationships tend to be difficult to observe – either because the spatial and/or temporal scales over which they evolve are so great or because the conditions that drive them are so dangerous (e.g. an extreme hazard event). Here, we use a physical experiment to examine dynamic allometry in overwash morphology along a model coastal barrier. We document the emergence of a canonical scaling law for length versus area in overwash deposits (washover). Comparing the experimental features, formed during a single forcing event, to 5 decades of change in real washover morphology from the Ria Formosa barrier system, in southern Portugal, we find differences between patterns of morphometric change at the event scale versus longer timescales. Our results may help inform and test process-based coastal morphodynamic models, which typically use statistical distributions and scaling laws to underpin empirical or semi-empirical parameters at fundamental levels of model architecture. More broadly, this work dovetails with theory for landscape evolution more commonly associated with fluvial and alluvial terrain, offering new evidence from a coastal setting that a landscape may reflect characteristics associated with an equilibrium or steady-state condition even when features within that landscape do not.

https://www.earth-surf-dynam-discuss.net/esurf-2019-39/

Esteves, E., Aníbal, J. (2020). Sensory evaluation of seafood freshness using the Quality Index Method: a metaanalysis. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 337:108934. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108934

Esteves, E., Aníbal, J.

The quality index method (QIM) is a leading method of assessing the freshness (and thus quality) of seafood that is based on relatively few sensory attributes considered relevant. These characteristics are scored using a 0 to 3 demerit points' scale, the sum of which is designated the quality index (QI) and quantifies the specimens' lack of freshness. The linear relationship between QI and storage time allows for the estimation of remaining shelf-life. Moreover, QIM is deemed species-specific. Meta-analysis was carried to attest the species-specificity of QIM schemes or if, otherwise, biological, ecological, procedural and methodological parameters, alone or in combination, justify schemes' categorization. The variation among the QIM schemes was analyzed using random/mixed-effects models of 68 primary studies. The correlation coefficient associated with linear relationship between the QIM scores and storage time was the designated effect. This study is the first to use of meta-analysis to summarize QIM schemes developed since the inception of the method in the early 1980s. The initial random-effects meta-analysis model indicated that the correlation coefficients associated with QIM averaged 0.982 (95% CI: 0.978-0.986). The considerable remaining heterogeneity (Q = 152.06, p < 0.0008) was further investigated as a function of moderator variables. Several moderator variables, per se or in combination, namely seafood group (bluefish, whitefish, Selachii, cephalopods and crustaceans), storage procedure (ice, water, air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) and temperature (°C), family and habitat (marine and freshwater), and maximum number of demerit points in QIM were found to have significant effects (QM, 0.0002 < p < 0.0919) on correlation coefficients derived from QIM schemes. Notwithstanding, at this stage of the analysis none clearly justified the categorization of QIM schemes since substantial residual heterogeneity remained unexplained in almost every case and there were issues with influential studies. Then, in a mixed-effects meta-analysis of a subset of studies for whole specimens stored in ice, seafood groups and maximum number of demerit points were found to be significant moderators (QM, p = 0.0018 and p = 0.0173, respectively). Correlation coefficients were higher in studies developing QIM schemes for cephalopods compared to the other seafood groups and in studies with lower sum of demerit points. The potential issues with publication bias and influence analysis are discussed. We cannot rule out the species-specificity of QIM schemes that have been stated previously and that constitutes a relative advantage compared to other methods of assessment seafood freshness based on sensory analysis, particularly the EU grading scheme.

10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108934

Soares, C., Pacheco, A., Zabel, F., González-Goberña, E., Sequeira, C. (2020). Baseline assessment of underwater noise in the Ria Formosa. Marine Pollution Bulletin 150: 110731, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110731

Soares, C., Pacheco, A., Zabel, F., González-Goberña, E., Sequeira, C. 

The Ria Formosa is a sheltered large coastal lagoon located on the Atlantic South Coast of Portugal, that has been classified as a natural park since 1987. The lagoon hosts a diverse and abundant fish community and other species of commercial importance. Several economical activities are supported by shipping, and as such, vessel traffic within the Ria Formosa lagoon is very intense at some locations during particular seasons of the year, creating high levels of underwater noise. Recently, strong efforts are being made to turn the main inlet of the lagoon, the Faro-Olhão Inlet, a testing site for small scale tidal stream turbines, which will bring an additional source of underwater noise. Underwater noise can be one of a number of factors causing habitat degradation, as it can perturb fish behavior and cause physiological damage. Therefore, in order to comply with underwater noise pollution regulations, tidal energy technology developers are very interested in minimising the introduction of acoustic energy in the environment during the operation of their devices. Under the scope of project SCORE, which involved the deployment and operation of a floating tidal energy converter, this paper presents and discusses the first baseline noise monitoring performed at Ria Formosa. The acoustic data were collected in two occasions over several days, one in the winter and the other in the summer, in 2017. The obtained analysis results highlight the potential impact of the intense boat traffic in Ria Formosa, and the wide range of sound levels introduced in that ecosystem, and the high diurnal and seasonal variability.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110731

Schüler, L. M., Gangadhar, K. N., Duarte, P., Placines, C., Molina-Márquez, A. M., Léon-Bañares, R., Sousa, V.S., Varela, J., Barreira, L. (2020). Improvement of carotenoid extraction from a recently isolated, robust microalga, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (ch

Schüler, L. M., Gangadhar, K. N., Duarte, P., Placines, C., Molina-Márquez, A. M., Léon-Bañares, R., Sousa, V.S., Varela, J., Barreira, L.

In recent years, there has been increasing consumer interest in carotenoids, particularly of marine sustainable origin with applications in the food, cosmeceutical, nutritional supplement and pharmaceutical industries. For instance, microalgae belonging to the genus Tetraselmis are known for their biotechnologically relevant carotenoid profile. The recently isolated marine microalgal strain Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 is a fast-growing, robust industrial strain, which has successfully been produced in 100-m3 photobioreactors. However, there are no reports on total carotenoid contents from this strain belonging to T. striata/convolutae clade. Although there are several reports on extraction methods targeting chlorophytes, extraction depends on the strength of cell coverings, solvent polarity and the nature of the targeted carotenoids. Therefore, this article evaluates different extraction methods targeting Tetraselmis sp. CTP4, a strain known to contain a mechanically resistant theca. Here, we propose a factorial experimental design to compare extraction of total carotenoids from wet and freeze-dried microalgal biomass using four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol or tetrahydrofuran) in combination with two types of mechanical cell disruption (glass beads or dispersion). The extraction efficiency of the methods was assessed by pigment contents and profiles present in the extracts. Extraction of wet biomass by means of glass bead-assisted cell disruption using tetrahydrofuran yielded the highest amounts of lutein and β-carotene (622 ± 40 and 618 ± 32 µg g−1 DW, respectively). Although acetone was slightly less efficient than tetrahydrofuran, it is preferable due to its lower costs and toxicity.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-019-02273-9

Guerra, L., Veiga-Pires, C., González-Regalado, M. L., Abad, M., Toscano, A., Muñoz, J. M., Ruiz, F., Vidal, J.R., Cáceres, L.M., Izquierdo, T., Carretero, M.I., Pozo, M., Monge, G., Tosquella, J., Prudencio, M.I., Dias, M.I., Marques, R., Gómez, P., Ro

Guerra, L., Veiga-Pires, C., González-Regalado, M. L., Abad, M., Toscano, A., Muñoz, J. M., Ruiz, F., Vidal, J.R., Cáceres,
L.M., Izquierdo, T., Carretero, M.I., Pozo, M., Monge, G., Tosquella, J., Prudencio, M.I., Dias, M.I., Marques, R., Gómez,
P., Romero, V.

A multidisciplinar analysis of sediments collected in different environments of the Doñana National Park (Guadalquivir estuary, SW Spain) provides an overview of the textural, mineralogical and physico-chemical parameters that control the distribution of benthic foraminiferal tests in this Biosphere Reserve. These microorganisms are absent in the fine quartzitic sands that constitute the substrate of temporary ponds with brief hydroperiods located in the dune systems and spits, as well as in other ponds with low conductivities or hypersaline conditions located in the inner marshlands or near the Guadalquivir river banks. Dead benthic foraminifera are mainly found on phyllosilicate-rich, silty-clayey substrates. The taphonomic analysis of the main species (Ammonia tepida, Haynesina germanica, Trochammina inflata, Entzia macrescens) points to its deposit in situ. Cluster analysis permits to delimitate six foraminiferal assemblages. Cluster II (A. tepida + H. germanica) is the dominant assemblage in the central ponds and the margins of the main channels, while cluster IV (T. inflata + E. macrescens) is restricted to some ponds located on the high marsh and cluster VI (Ammonia beccarii + Quinqueloculina spp.) is abundant on external beaches. Tidal fluxes cause the transport of these last marine benthic species and some plaktonic forms both to the inner areas of the estuary and to these beaches.

https://doi.org/10.1007/ s41513-019-00116-w

Kombiadou, K., Costas, S., Carrasco, A.R., Plomaritis, T.A., Ferreira, Ó., Matias, A. (2020a). Bridging the gap between resilience and geomorphology of complex coastal systems. Earth-Science Reviews, 198, 102934, https://doi.org/10.1016/J. EARSCIREV.201

Kombiadou, K., Costas, S., Carrasco, A.R., Plomaritis, T.A., Ferreira, Ó., Matias, A.

Resilience has been used over a wide range of scientific fields and often ambiguously, causing confusion over terminology and concepts and giving rise to distinct interpretations and misconceptions, even within the same scientific discipline. Starting by providing clarifications and definitions of the main terminology and key principles of ecological resilience theory, we pass on to expressing them through geomorphic dimensions of barrier islands. Three distinct environments (beach, dune, marsh) are proposed as the panarchical levels of analysis, along with potential feedbacks between them and geomorphic dimensions that can express the changes of the stability landscape. Morphological changes induced by storms and subsequent recovery are transferred to stability landscapes, over a range of storm impacts and recovery. We postulate that post-perturbation recovery should not be restricted to regaining pre-disturbance barrier dimensions, but should be viewed in terms of reorganisation and adaptation, accounting for maintaining the existence of functions, or the ability of the system to regain them. The proposed scheme and dimensions are tested using geomorphological data from barrier response to distinct disturbances, over different temporal scales that range from event to multi-decadal ones. The case of a barrier island migrating landwards is conceptualised in terms of alternative states and thresholds arising during the process and related phases and changes to the adaptive cycle. The methodology and approach presented is a step towards more holistic views of geomorphic systems' resilience that we hope will contribute to furthering interdisciplinary understanding and cooperation in the area of sustainability and resilience of natural systems.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.102934

Herrero, X., Costas, S., Kombiadou, K. (2020). Coastal ridge constructive processes at a multi-decadal scale in Barreta Island (Southern Portugal). Earth Processes and Landforms, 45(2), pp.411-423, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4742

Herrero, X., Costas, S., Kombiadou, K. 

Multiple ridges across prograding coasts may display variable geometries, commonly expressed through varying elevations. Changes in ridge elevation have been traditionally related to the occurrence of fluctuating progradation rates, which might, in turn, be driven by shifting environmental conditions.

Here, we explore the geometry and growth mechanisms of multiple ridges, generated at Barreta Island (Ria Formosa, southern Portugal), as a consequence of the rapid progradation of the island over the last 70 years, following the artificial fixation of the downdrift Faro‐Olhão inlet with jetties in 1955. The variability in the morphology of these features was analysed in combination with available wind and wave data, in order to better distinguish growth mechanisms and understand the main parameters determining the final geometry of the observed ridges.

The results suggest that (1) most of the identified ridges fall in the beach ridge classification, as they have been mostly built by marine processes, and (2) the parameters derived from, or closely related to wave climate variability (e.g. progradation rates, storm occurrence) can jointly explain most of the observed morphological changes, while aeolian processes played a secondary role. Indeed, ridge geometry appears mainly controlled by progradation rates, with higher ridges associated with lower progradation rates. Progradation rate, in turn, is mostly related to longshore wave power, storminess, and the occurrence storm groups. Yet, the final configuration of ridges can also be affected by runup levels and onshore winds. Therefore, establishing the relation between ridge geometry and wave climate is not a straightforward task, because of the complex processes and interactions that control coastal morphodynamics. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4742

The Global Integrated World Ocean Assessment: Linking Observations to Science and Policy Across Multiple Scales

Karen Evans, Sanae Chiba, Maria J. Bebianno, Carlos Garcia-Soto, Henn Ojaveer, Chul Park, Renison Ruwa, Alan J. Simcock, C. T. Vu9 and Tymon Zielinski

In 2004, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly approved a Regular Process to report on the environmental, economic and social aspects of the world’s ocean. The Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects produced the first global integrated assessment of the marine environment in December 2016 (known as the first World Ocean Assessment). The second assessment, to be delivered in December 2020, will build on the baselines included in the first assessment, with a focus on establishing trends in the marine environment with relevance to global reporting needs such as those associated with the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Central to the assessment process and its outputs are two components. First, is the utilization of ocean observation and monitoring outputs and research to temporally assess physical, chemical, biological, social, economic and cultural components of coastal and marine environments to establish their current state, impacts currently affecting coastal and marine environments, responses to those impacts and associated ongoing trends. Second, is the knowledge brokering of ocean observations and associated research to provide key information that can be utilized and applied to address management and policy needs at local, regional and global scales. Through identifying both knowledge gaps and capacity needs, the assessment process also provides direction to policy makers for the future development and deployment of sustained observation systems that are required for enhancing knowledge and supporting national aspirations associated with the sustainable development of coastal and marine ecosystems. Input from the ocean observation community, managers and policy makers is critical for ensuring that the vital information required for supporting the science policy interface objectives of the Regular Process is included in the assessment. This community white paper discusses developments in linking ocean observations and science with policy achieved as part of the assessment process, and those required for providing strategic linkages into the future.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00298

Coupled ocean and atmospheric changes during Greenland stadial 1 in southwestern Europe

F.Naughton, Susana Costas, S.D.Gomes, S.Desprat, T.Rodrigues, M.F.Sanchez Goñi, H.Renssen, R.Trigo, C.Bronk-Ramsey, D.Oliveira, E.Salgueiro, A.H.L.Voelker, F.Abrantes.


Paleoclimate reconstructions suggest that the complex variability within the Greenland stadial 1 (GS-1) over western Europe was governed by coupled ocean and atmospheric changes. However, few works from the North Atlantic mid-latitudes document both the GS-1 onset and its termination, which are often considered as single abrupt transition events. Here, we present a direct comparison between marine (alkenone-based sea surface temperatures) and terrestrial (pollen) data, at very high resolution (28 years mean), from the southwestern Iberian shelf record D13882. Our results reveal a rather complex climatic period with internally changing conditions. The GS-1 onset (GS-1a: 12890-12720 yr BP) is marked by a progressive cooling and drying; GS-1b (12720-12390 yr BP) is the coldest and driest phase; GS-1c (12390-12030 yr BP) is marked by a progressive warming and increase in moisture conditions; GS-1 termination (GS-1d: 12030-11770 yr BP) is marked by rapid switches between cool wet, cold dry and cool wet conditions.Although hydroclimate response was very unsteady throughout the GS-1 and in particular during its termination phase, the persistence of an open temperate and Mediterranean forest in southwestern Iberia during the entire episode suggests that at least some moisture was delivered via the Westerlies. We propose coupled ocean and atmospheric mechanisms to reproduce these scenaria. Changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as well as variations in the North Atlantic sea-ice growth have favoured the displacement of the polar jet stream's latitudinal position and contributed to a complex spatial pattern and strength of the Westerlies across western Europe.

 

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.03.033

Coupling nearshore and aeolian processes: XBeach and duna process-based models

Dano Roelvink, Susana Costas

A new dune profile model, Duna, is developed and coupled with the existing XBeach model, in which some key improvements allow a much better behaviour of the intertidal beach and the inclusion of structural erosion or accretion through a longshore transport gradient. The model is shown to represent typical behaviour of a beach-dune system in Praia de Faro, Portugal and to be able to simulate processes on a decadal timescale. The model captures a balance between longshore gradients and cross-shore processes in the surf zone, competing effects of moderate conditions and storms in the intertidal area and between build-up by storm waves and aeolian transport on the berm. Vegetation behaviour is shown to play a key role in the development of the shape of the foredunes. The relation between progradation or recession rate and foredune height as often reported in literature is reproduced and explained.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364815218309095?via%3Dihub

 

Changes in protein expression in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis dietarily exposed to PVP/PEI coated silver nanoparticles at different seasons

Nerea Duroudier, Câtia Cardoso, Kahina Mehennaoui, Mathilde Mikolaczyk, Jörg Schäfer, Arno C.Gutleb, Laure Giamberini, Maria J.Bebianno, Eider Bilbao, Miren P.Cajaraville

Potential toxic effects of Ag NPs ingested through the food web and depending on the season have not been addressed in marine bivalves. This work aimed to assess differences in protein expression in the digestive gland of female mussels after dietary exposure to Ag NPs in autumn and spring. Mussels were fed daily with microalgae previously exposed for 24 h to 10 μg/L of PVP/PEI coated 5 nm Ag NPs. After 21 days, mussels significantly accumulated Ag in both seasons and Ag NPs were found within digestive gland cells and gills. Two-dimensional electrophoresis distinguished 104 differentially expressed protein spots in autumn and 142 in spring. Among them, chitinase like protein-3, partial and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, that are involved in amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, carbon metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the biosynthesis of amino acids KEGG pathways, were overexpressed in autumn but underexpressed in spring. In autumn, pyruvate metabolism, citrate cycle, cysteine and methionine metabolism and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism were altered, while in spring, proteins related to the formation of phagosomes and hydrogen peroxide metabolism were differentially expressed. Overall, protein expression signatures depended on season and Ag NPs exposure, suggesting that season significantly influences responses of mussels to NP exposure.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.02.010

 

Deriving High Spatial-Resolution Coastal Topography From Sub-meter Satellite Stereo Imagery

Luís Pedro Almeida, Rafael Almar, Erwin W. J. Bergsma, Etienne Berthier, Paulo Baptista, Erwan Garel, Olusegun A. Dada and Bruna Alves

High spatial resolution coastal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are crucial to assess coastal vulnerability and hazards such as beach erosion, sedimentation, or inundation due to storm surges and sea level rise. This paper explores the possibility to use high spatial-resolution Pleiades (pixel size = 0.7 m) stereoscopic satellite imagery to retrieve a DEM on sandy coastline. A 40-km coastal stretch in the Southwest of France was selected as a pilot-site to compare topographic measurements obtained from Pleiades satellite imagery, Real Time Kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and airborne Light Detection and Ranging System (LiDAR). The derived 2-m Pleiades DEM shows an overall good agreement with concurrent methods (RTK-GPS and LiDAR; correlation coefficient of 0.9), with a vertical Root Mean Squared Error (RMS error) that ranges from 0.35 to 0.48 m, after absolute coregistration to the LiDAR dataset. The largest errors (RMS error > 0.5 m) occurred in the steep dune faces, particularly at shadowed areas. This work shows that DEMs derived from sub-meter satellite imagery capture local morphological features (e.g., berm or dune shape) on a sandy beach, over a large spatial domain.
Keywords: Pleiades; photogrammetry; LiDAR; RTK-GPS; beach topography

 

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/11/5/590/html

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O CIMA é financiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) através da referência UIDP/00350/2020, com sede no Campus Universitário de Gambelas, Edifício 7,  8005-139 FARO PORTUGAL. Tel: 351 289 244 434, 351 289 800 100; E-mail: cima@ualg.pt (+ info)
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O CIMA é financiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) através da referência UIDP/00350/2020, com sede no Campus Universitário de Gambelas, Edifício 7,  8005-139 FARO PORTUGAL. Tel: 351 289 244 434, 351 289 800 100; E-mail: cima@ualg.pt
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